ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) According to the Chachamim, a man who goes out into the street wearing weapons on Shabbos, is Chayav Chatas - Rebbi Eliezer permits it because armor for a man is a Tachshit, not a burden.
(b) The Chachamim counter that on the contrary, armor is a symbol of disgrace for a man. This is evident from the Pasuk in Yeshayah, which describes how, in the days of Mashi'ach, weapons will become obsolete, and how they will all be broken up and transformed into plowing implements. Rebbi Eliezer however, does not accept this argument. The reason that weapons will become obsolete in the days of Mashi'ach, he claims - is only because then, there will be no use for them; today, as long as they are still needed, they are a Tachshit. When Abaye compares Rebbi Eliezer's reasoning to a 'Sh'raga be'Tihara' - he means that weapons will become obsolete in the days of Mashi'ach, like a lamp is obsolete during the day, when the sun is shining.
(c) When Shmuel says that the only difference between the world today and the days of Mashi'ach, is our subservience to the nations, which will disappear then. Everything else, including the wearing of weapons, will continue as it was - disagreeing with Abaye. The discarding of weapons referred to by Yeshayah, according to Shmuel, pertains not to the days of Mashi'ach, but to the period of Olam ha'Ba which will follow it.
(d) Rebbi Chiya bar Aba disagrees with Shmuel. According to him - all the prophecies (including those of Yeshayah concerning the abolishing of weapons) concerning the future, pertain to the days of Mashi'ach. Olam ha'Ba is beyond the scope and vision of the prophets.
(a) In the second Lashon, Rebbi Eliezer replied to the Chachamim that weapons will not cease to be worn in the days of Mashi'ach (only in the time of Olam ha'Ba) - like the opinion of Shmuel (and in conflict with Rebbi Chiya bar Aba).
(b) The Pasuk "Chagor Chargecha al Yarech Gibor Hodcha va'Hadarecha!" appears to bear out the opinion of Rebbi Eliezer - inasmuch as it implies that weapons are a Tachshit for a man, and not a disgrace.
(c) The Chachamim however, establish this Pasuk by Divrei Torah - that a Talmid-Chacham should clarify what he learns and revise it constantly, so that, when he is called upon to account for his deeds, he will have all the proofs needed to vindicate himself. In principle, Rebbi Eliezer agrees with this Derashah, but he also insists on learning the Pasuk literally, because of the principle 'Ein Mikra Yotze Mi'Yedei Peshuto' (The plain interpretation of a Pasuk must be retained).
(d) Rav Kahana said that he was eighteen years old when he finished Shas, yet he did not know that 'Ein Mikra Yotze mi'Yedei Peshuto'. So we see that a Jew must learn everything - even if he does not understand it so well - and then revise it at a deeper level, when he will be able to pick up many things of which he was unaware the first time round.
(a) 'Sh'nei Talmidin ha'Mechadedin Zeh la'Zeh ba'Halachah' - means two Talmidei-Chachamim who ask each other questions and give answers, not in order to try and catch each other out, but in order to increase their understanding of the Sugya.
(b) Hash-m will grant them success in their endeavors, and what's more, they will rise to greatness - on condition that they learn li'Shemah, and that they do not become conceited.
(c) According to one opinion, they will subsequently merit Torah.According to Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak - they will merit long life in the World to Come, as well as wealth and honor, all of which are given with the right hand (to someone who learns li'Shemah (as stated in Mishlei).
(d) Someone who learns Torah she'lo li'Shemah - will merit only wealth and honor in this world.
(e) 'bi'Yeminah' might also refer to those who study Torah with much effort, to clarify everything that they learn; whereas 'bi'Semolah' refers to those who learn casually, without much effort and care.
(a) The Pasuk ...
1. ... "Az Nidberu Yir'ei Hash-m Ish el Re'eihu, va'Yakshev Hash-m va'Yishma" - refers to two people who learn together gently, sweetly, with the intention of learning from one another (from the word "Yadber (Amim Tachteinu" - in Tehilim), meaning to place under our jurisdiction (a connotation of 'humbleness' - and in our Sugya, 'gently'). Alternatively, it could also mean 'to lead', because they lead each other to the correct Halachah.
2. ... "u'le'Choshvei Shemo" - refers to someone who intended to perform a Mitzvah, but was prevented from doing so. It is nevertheless considered as if he had performed it.
(b) We learn from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Shomer Mitzvah Lo Yeida Davar Ra"- that if someone performs a Mitzvah properly, he will not be given any bad news.
2. ... " ba'Asher Diber Melech Shilton u'Mi Yomar Lecha mah Ta'aseh? ... (which immediately precedes it)" - that a Mitzvah that is performed properly has the power to cancel Hash-m's harsh decrees.
(c) We learn from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "ha'Yosheves ba'Ganim Chaverim Makshivim, le'Kolcha Hashmi'ini" - that when two Talmidei-Chachamim listen carefully to each other when they learn Torah, Hash-m grants them their requests.
2. ... "B'rach Dodi, u'Demei ... " - that if they do not, they will cause the Shechinah to depart from Klal Yisrael.
(d) And "ve'Diglu Alai Ahavah" teaches us - that when two Talmidim who, because they have no Rav from whom to learn, join forces and study together, to arrive at a better understanding of the subject-matter, Hash-m loves them.
(a) Rebbi Aba, who is the author of the previous two statements, also said 'Gadol ha'Malveh Yoser min ha'Oseh Tzedakah' - because it spares the recipient from the embarassment of receiving a free gift.
(b) It is a greater Mitzvah still though - to give someone in need money to enter into a business venture, the profits of which he shares with the owner.
(c) A Talmid-Chachamim who takes revenge like a snake is preferable to a pious, unlearned Jew, because one can learn a lot from his Torah. On the other hand, one should keep well away from the latter, who, due to his ignorance, will make mistakes from which one is bound to learn.
(a) We learn from ...
1. ... the Pasuk"Lamas me'Re'eihu Chased" - that someone who keeps a vicious dog ('Lamas' is the Greek word for 'a dog') in his house, withholds Chesed from other Jews (because poor people will be afraid to come to his door).
2. ... the continuation of the Pasuk "ve'Yir'as Shakai Ta'azov" - that he also divests himself of the fear of G-d.
(b) That man attempted to pacify the pregnant woman who came to bake in his house, by informing her that the dog that was barking at her had had his fangs removed.
(c) To which she replied - that it was too late, be cause the baby had already moved, and died.
(a) The two ways of explaining the Pasuk ...
1. ... "S'mach Bachur be'Yaldusecha ..... ve'Da Ki al Kol Eleh Yevi'acha Hash-m ba'Mishpat" are 1. like Rav Huna, who explains that these are the words of the Yetzer ha'Ra, encouraging a young man to succumb to the temptations of youthful sin; 2. like Resh Lakish, according to whom it refers to the study of Torah, and Shlomoh ha'Melech is offering him advice to revel in Torah-study.
2. ... "ve'Da Ki al Kol Eleh Yevi'acha Hash-m ba'Mishpat" are - 1. according to Rav Huna, these are now the words of the Yeitzer-Tov, who warns the young man, that should he succumb to the Yeitzer-ha-Ra's temptations, he will be taken to task for his actions; 2. according to Resh Lakish, Shlomoh is warns him that, he will be taken to task, if he does not put all that he learns into practice.
(a) The Tana of our Mishnah states 'Biris Tehorah, ve'Yotzin Bah be'Shabbos, u'Kevalim Temei'im'. The objection that we raise on Rav Yehudah, who interprets Biris as a bracelet is - that Biris cannot mean a bracelet, because we already know that a bracelet is Tamei.
(b) Rav Yehudah meant - that Kevalin are Temei'in, and it is forbidden to go out with them on Shabbos.
(c) Ravin maintains that a Biris is worn on one leg to hold up a stocking; and Kevalim, on two. Consequently ...
1. ... the latter also serve as ornaments, and are therefore Tamei (as we learned earlier in the Masechta). whereas the former is not ornamental - and is therefore Tahor.
2. ... the former - because it is not ornamental, is unlikely to be removed to show the owner's friends, and explains why she is permitted to go out with it in the street; whereas the latter, where the owner is likely to remove to show her friends, remain within the decree of Tachshitim. (If, as Rashi explains, a woman is permitted to go out with a Biris, since, because she will not take it off, it will entail revealing her legs, it is not clear why Kevalim are forbidden).
(a) According to Rav Huna, (in whose opinion both a Biris and Kevalim are worn on two legs) the difference between them is the chain that joins the Kevalim, but not the Biris.
(b) Their Dinim differ as regards ...
1. ... Tum'ah - because the Biris is nothing more than a pair of garters, whereas the chain on the Kevalim is considered a 'K'li Ma'aseh', which is subject to Tum'ah (like a bell).
2. ... Shabbos - because the chain also served an ornamental purpose, nd was subject to being removed to show the wearer's friends.
(c) Kevalim have the Din of Tashmish Adam - because because their function was to force the women who wore them (members of a specific family in Yerushalayim, who used to take long steps, which would cause them to lose their virginity early) to take shorter steps, thereby preserving their virginity. And because of their ornamental function.
(a) According to Rebbi Eliezer b'Rebbi Yossi, who claims to have seen the Tzitz in Rome, the words 'Kodesh la'Hashem' were written in one line. The Tana Kama maintains - that the word 'Kodesh' together with the 'Lamed', were written at the beginning of the line, and the Name of 'Hashem', above it - at the end of the line.
(b) We not learn from the Tzitz, that whatever is woven, is Tamei, however small it is (since the Tzitz was less than three by three Tefachim) - since the Tzitz was not woven; it was made of gold!
(c) We do however, learn from the Tzitz - that an ornament, however small, is Tamei.
(a) We learn from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "O Beged" - that whatever is woven is Tamei even if it less than three by three Tefachim.
2. ... "Kol K'li Ma'aseh" - that a small article half of which is woven and the other half is an ornament (but not woven), is Tamei.
(b) Despite the fact that Tum'as Sheretz is less stringent than Tum'as Meis, we learn the latter Din from Tum'as Meis - by means of a Gezeirah Shavah "K'li" "K'li".