ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
12TH CYCLE SHABBOS 40 (4 Sivan) - Dedicated by Rabbi Kornfeld's father, Mr. David Kornfeld, in memory of the members of his family, Hashem Yikom Damam, who perished at the hands of the Nazi murderers in the Holocaust and whose Yahrzeit is observed today: his mother (Mirel bas Yakov Mordechai), brothers (Shraga Feivel, Aryeh Leib and Yisachar Dov, sons of Mordechai), grandfather (Reb Yakov Mordechai ben Reb David [Shpira]) and aunt (Charne bas Yakov Mordechai [wife of Reb Moshe Aryeh Cohen z'l]).
(a) We learnt earlier, that even water that has been heated on Erev Shabbos is only permitted for washing one's face, arms and legs. Rav extends this Halachah - by permitting even the washing of one's whole body, limb by limb (provided one does not enter a bath to bathe one's entire body at once.
(b) He explains the words 'Aval Lo Kol Gufo' to mean - not all of his body at once (but limb by limb is permitted).
(c) According to Shmuel - Chazal only permit the washing of one's face, arms and legs, like the Beraisa writes.
(d) The Halacha must be like Shmuel - because of the Beraisa which specifically forbids washing one's body limb by limb, even with water that was heated on Erev Shabbos.
(a) Rabah presents another version of Rav's opinion. According to him - Rav permits washing one's entire body with water that was heated on Erev Shabbos, provided he leaves one limb unwashed.
(b) The Gemara asks all the same Kashyos on the second version as it asked on the first, but has no answer to them. We cannot explain the Beraisa, which permits the washing of one's face, arms and legs, to mean that is permitted to wash one's body limb by limb, like the face, the arms and the legs, because, in this version, Rav himself does not require limb by limb. So why does the Beraisa write 'his face, his arms and his legs' - unless it is to exclude any other part of one's body, a Kashya against Rav?
(c) Abaye expressed surprise at Rav Yosef, who queried whether Rabah ruled like Rav or not, 'mi'Mah Nafshach': to begin with, Rav has just been proved wrong. And if he had not - then Rabah always follows the opinion of Rav (with the exception of the three cases that we learnt above (on 22a.), so why should Rav Yosef be in doubt?
(d) We jutify Rav Yosef's query however, on both scores. Firstly - because he was not aware that Rav had been disproved; and secondly, because even though Rabah always follows Rav's rulings, that is only le'Chumra, but not necessarily le'Kula - and in this case, Rav (before retracting) went le'Kula, to permit one to wash other lambs beside his face, arms and legs.
(a) a 'Merchatz she'Pakeku Nekavav me'Erev Shabbos', is - a hot bathhouse whose holes they stopped up before Shabbos, to prevent the heat from entering on Shabbos.
(b) One is permitted ...
1. ... to bathe in that bathhouse immediately after the termination of Shabbos.
2. ... If one stopped it up on Erev Yom-Tov - one is even permitted to take a steam-bath in it on Yom-Tov, and to make Shituf in the outer chamber.
(c) According to Rebbi Elazar ben Azarya and Rebbi Akiva, it was necesary to cover the hot water with planks - to avoid people suspecting him of having heated the water on Yom-Tov.
(a) Chazal forbade bathing in hot water on Shabbos- even if the water was heated on Erev Shabbos - because the bath-attendants began heating the water on Shabbos, pretending that it had been heated on Erev Shabbos. However, they still permitted steam-baths ...
(b) ... until people began bathing on Shabbos (which the Chachamim had just forbidden), and saying that really they were just having a steam-bath. So they forbade that, too. But the hot springs of Teverya remained permitted ...
(c) ... until people began bathing in water that had been heated with fire, pretending to have bathed in water that was heated in the hot springs of Teverya. Then they forbade that as well. However, when they saw that this was too dufficult for the community to bear, they rescinded this latter decree - permitting once again, bathing in the hot springs of Teverya.
(a) We learn that it is permitted to call someone a sinner, even when he only transgresses no more that an Isur de'Rabbanan - because the Tana describes how Chazal forbade steam-baths because of people who would take a bath and pretend that they had only had a steam-bath. Now these people had transgressed no more than an Isur de'Rabbanan, yet Chazal refer to them as 'Ovrei Aveirah'.
(b) The Beraisa permits one to walk in the bath-houses of the cities - but not of the villages, where, due to their small size, it was inevitable that, even by walking in them, one would sweat, and experience the effect of a steam-bath (which is not the case by the larger, more spacious cities.
(c) Someone who wishes to warm himself beside a fire and also to rinse with cold water - must take care to do so in the reverse order, because, once he has rinsed in cold water, standing in front of a fire brcomes forbidden (since the cold water that remain on his body will becomes heated).
(a) Someone with stomach-pains ...
1. ... may place a hot towel on his stomach on Shabbos ...
2. ... but not a container of hot water - because the water may spill, causing him to transgress the prohibition of bathing on Shabbos.
(b) This is forbidden even during the week - because of the danger of scalding oneself.
(c) According to the Tana Kama - one is permitted to place a flask of cold water beside a fire on Shabbos, provided he only leaves it there long enough for the water to become warm, and no longer.
(a) Rebbi Yehudah forbids placing a jar of oil next to the fire, like the Tana Kama forbids a flask of water. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel permits oil only in an unusual way - such as a woman smearing it on her hand, and then warming her hand by the fire before smearing the oil on her young son.
(b) According to the firsts Lashon in the Tana Kama, only water is forbidden to reach the stage of 'Yad Soledes Bo', but not oil - because oil cannot be cooked.
(c) 'Yad Soledes Bo' means - that as the hand gets close to the source of heat, it becomes so hot that it recoils in anticipation of the pain. This can be gauged by the temperature at which a baby's stomach becomes scalded (though this method of gauging is of course, not practical).
(d) Rebbi Yehudah however, forbids placing a jar of oil beside the fire - because, in his opinion, oil can be cooked, but only when (like water) it reaches the heat of 'Yad Soledes Bo'.
(a) Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel is the most stringent of all with regard to oil. According to him - oil is considered cooked from the time that it becomes warm.
(a) According to the second Lashon in the Tana Kama too, he forbids a jar of oil to be cooked, just like a flask of water. In this Lashon however - he holds that oil is considered cooked from the time it becomes warm, like Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. The latter however, permits warming the oil in an unusual way, whereas the Tana Kama does not.
(b) On one occasion, Rav Yitzchak bar Avdimi followed Rebbi into the bathhouse (to serve him). He was on the verge of pouring a jar of oil into the pool of hot water. Rebbi was permitted to take a bath on Shabbos - because this was a bathhouse that was heated by the hot springs of Teverya in which bathing was permitted (as we learnt earlier).
(c) From the fact that Rebbi instructed him to first take out some water and put it into a container, and to pour the oil into that (but not directly into the bath),Rav Yitzchak learnt - that cooking is applicable to oil; that if the oil becomes warm it is already considered cooked (because he only wanted to warm the water (and not to heat it); and that a Kli Sheni does not cook.
(d) The problem with Rebbi having instructed Rav Yitzchak bar Avdimi what to do is - that even thinking Torah thoughts is forbidden, how much more so, discussing them.
(a) Regarding the prohibition of speaking Divrei Torah in a bathhouse - it makes no difference in which language the Torah is spoken - or thought (and on the other hand, Divrei Chol are permitted even in Lashon h'Kodesh. In other words, the criterion is not the language, but the contents).
(b) Rebbi instructed Rav Yitzchak bar Avdimi - because he was not just teaching a Halachah, but preventing him from performing an Isur, which is permitted. In fact, even Rebbi had a precedent in Rebbi Meir, who did exactly the same with a Talmid of his, who was about to pour oil into the bath-water.
(c) Chazal forbade washing the floor on Shabbos - because one may come to fill in holes and grooves in the process.
(d) We reconcile Ravina, who deduces from Rebbi that someone who cooks in the hot springs of Teverya on Shabbos is Chayav, with Rav Chisda, who says he is Patur - by interpreting 'Chayav' to mean Makas Mardus (Malkos mi'de'Rabbanan - though normally, 'Chayav', with regard to Shabbos, means Chayav Chatas).
(a) Chazal forbade swimming ...
1. ... in a river - in case one comes to construct a life-belt (similar to the decree of not playing instruments [in case one comes to repair or tune it]).
2. ... even in a pool that is situated in a public place - in case one comes to splash water outside the pool area (which is in effect, carrying from a Karmelis to a Reshus ha'Rabim).
(b) Standing in a pool in one's courtyard is always permitted. Paddling too, is permitted, provided one does not lift one's feet off ground. Chazal forbade swimming even in a pool in one's own Chatzer - because of 'Lo P'lug' (not to differentiate between one area and another).
(c) We conclude that swimming in a private pool is permitted, provided it has 'Gidudi' (a sloping embankment). Chazal forbade swimming in a pool without 'Gidudi' - because then, as one reaches the side and is about to leave the water, one is liable to stick one's feet into the ground (and, at one and the same time, dig a hole and mix the earth and the water).
(d) According to Rashi's second explanation, they permitted swimming in a pool with 'Gidudi' - because it is no longer similar to a river, but to a vessel (and Chazal did not issue a decree with regard to swimming in a vessel).