ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
19 SHABBOS - Dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Reb Naftali ben Reb Menachem Mendel Bodner Z"L by his wife, Alice Bodner. A man who loved Chesed, Tuli Bodner applied his many talents to help everyone he knew in any way he could. His cheerful greeting is warmly remembered by all who knew him. He was Niftar on 5 Cheshvan 5765.
(a) Having permitted placing food in front of one's dog on Shabbos, the Tana nevertheless needs to add that one may also place food in front of a Nochri - because we might otherwise have thought that the former is permitted only because feeding one's animal is one's personal responsibility, whereas placing it in front of a Nochri, whom one is not responsible to feed, would be forbidden.
(b) Having placed the food in front of one's dog or in front of a Nochri - he is no longer responsible to ensure that he does not carry it out into the street.
Note: This concession is restricted to foods, which the non-Jew is likely to eat there in the courtyard, but does not apply to other objects, which he is bound to take out into the street (Tosfos DH 'Nosnin').
(c) From the fact that the Gemara here makes no distinction, the Magen Avraham infers that, unlike other animals, whom one may only feed when they are one's own, one may feed even a dog that is not one's own on Shabbos. The reason for this is, because Hash-m cursed the dog - inasmuch as it is always hungry, and therefore we are obligated to go in Hash-m's ways and to feed the hungry ('Mah Hu Rachum, Af Ata Rachum') - even on Shabbos.
(a) It is forbidden to rent out one's vessels to a non-Jew on Friday - because it conveys the impression that he is renting them out to be used on Shabbos (see Tosfos DH 'Lo Yaskir').
(b) One may send letters with a non-Jew on Friday ...
1. ... according to Beis-Hillel- provided that either the price has been fixed beforehand, or that the non-Jew can to reach the house nearest the walls of his home town before Shabbos.
2. ... according to Beis Shamai - only if both of the two conditions ar met.
(c) Both of the above cases are permitted on Wednesday or on Thursday. Rebbi Yossi ha'Kohen however, was strict - and would never send a letter with a Nochri, even on Wednesday or Thursday.
(a) It is forbidden to go out to sea - within three days of Shabbos (from Wednesday and onwards). Many reasons are given for this prohibition: See the Rosh, Siman 38, who explains that it is due to seasickness, which interferes with the obligation to enjoy Shabbos, and it takes three days to get used to the boat's movements (see also Tosfos DH 'Ein').
(b) According to Rebbi, one may leave for a D'var Mitzvah, provided he asked the captain to drop anchor on Shabbos; in the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, this is not necessary.
(c) It is permitted to travel from Tzur to Tzidon by boat on Friday - since it is less than a day's journey, and it is therefore possible to arrive at one's destination before Shabbos.
(a) We learn from the Pasuk "Ad Ridtah" - that even though one does not initiate an attack against an enemy town between Wednesday and Shabbos, once the attack is already in progress, one is obligated to continue with it (even on Shabbos) until the city has fallen.
(b) Abaye told the laundry attendant who wanted to charge him the same price for washing colored clothes as white ones - that he was not as naive as he thought, because Rabban Gamliel had already taught that white clothes take longer and are more difficult to clean than colored ones.
(c) Abaye advised anyone giving clothes to a laundry to be washed, to measure ones clothes before handing them in, and after retrieving them - so that, should they come back larger than they were, he can charge the laundry for stretching his clothes; and if they come back shorter, he can charge them for shrinkage.
(a) 'ha'Shum, ve'ha'Boser, ve'ha'Melilos she'Riskan mi'Be'od Yom, ve'Rebbi Akiva Omer, Lo Yigmor'. Rebbi Yishmael is saying that, once garlic etc., has been pressed - it is permitted to leave the beam lying on it, for the juice to seep automatically into a container on Shabbos.
(b) Rebbi Elazar establishes our Mishnah (which permits the juice that comes out by itself after the fruit has been pressed) like Rebbi Elazar (ben Shamu'a), who permits honey-combs that were rubbed before Shabbos, and from which the honey then oozed out on Shabbos. Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina establishes our Mishnah like Rebbi Yishmael. He does not establish our Mishnah like Rebbi Elazar - because our Mishnah is speaking about liquid that comes from food, whereas Rebbi Elazar permits honey-combs, which is a case of food from food.
(c) Rebbi Elazar however, relied on a Beraisa, in which Rebbi Elazar permitted even the juice of olives and grapes. Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina nevertheless declined to establish our Mishnah like Rebbi Elazar - because he was unaware of that Beraisa.
(a) Rebbi Elazar on the other hand, does not want to establish our Mishnah like Rebbi Yishmael - because in our Mishnah, the olives and the grapes only require the last stage of pressing (so that the beams will complete the pressing process); whereas Rava bar Chanina quoting Rebbi Yochanan has established Rebbi Yishmael when the garlic and the grapes have not yet been well-pressed (so that the pressing process will not be completed on Shabbos).
(a) According to Rav, the oil that remains in the corners of the olive press, and the mats of the workers (with which they cover the olives), are Muktzah.Shmuel holds that the oil that remains in the corner of the olive-press and the mats of the workers are not Muktzah, because he holds like Rebbi Shimon, who only holds of specific types of Muktzah. Rav, on the other hand, holds like Rebbi Yehudah, who is more stringent in this area.
(b) They also argue over 'Hani Karchi de'Zuzi' - the pair of mats with which they would cover the goods for sale. Alternatively, it means the mats used in ships.
(c) They also argue about 'a goat for its milk, a lamb for its wool, a hen for its egg, an ox for plowing and dates for selling - referring to animals that have been set aside for their commercial value, and which are not intended to be Shechted for their meat. Rav holds like Rebbi Yehudah, who considers the animals Muktzah on Yom-Tov, and are therefore forbidden to Shecht; Shmuel follows the opinion of Rebbi Shimon, who does not hold of Muktzah in this case. (All the cases of Muktzah discussed until now are Muktzah because he pushed the article away with his hands (into the storehouse i.e. an object that has been designated for business purposes).
(d) In spite of the fact that the Halachah is like Shmuel, Rebbi Chanina placed a Talmid in Cherem for ruling like him in Charta - because it was Rav's territory.
(a) In spite of the prohibition of roasting meat etc., unless they can be finished before Shabbos enters, it is permitted to lower the Pesach into the oven before Shabbos (on Erev Pesach which falls on Friday - and we are not afraid that someone may stoke the coals) - because the members of the group of the Korban Pesach are alert, and will stop each other from stoking.
(b) The 'Meduras Beis ha'Mokad' - was the fire that was kept burning constantly in the Beis Hamikdash, in the room specially designated for that purpose. It was permitted to light the fire in the Lishkas Beis ha'Mokad just before Shabbos, because of the principle that Kohanim are alert, and we do not suspect them of stoking the coals.
(c) It was crucial for this fire to burn constantly - because the Kohanim had to perform the Avodah barefooted. Consequently, their feet would get very cold, and they needed a place where they could warm them.
(d) According to Rebbi Yehudah - it is permitted to light a coal fire just before Shabbos, because coal burns efficiently, and does not initially need to be stoked to create a nice fire.
(a) Rebbi Eliezer permits one to leave bread in the oven provided 'Paneha ha'Tachton' is done - whereas the Tana Kama requires the entire crust to be formed before Shabbos comes in.