ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) Our Mishnah permits a traveler to give his purse to a Nochri when it begins to get dark on Erev Shabbos. He must give it to him - before Shabbos comes in (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) We would have thought that this is forbidden - because he is appointing the Nochri as his Shali'ach to carry his purse ...
(c) ... yet the Chachamim permitted it - because the knew that if they don't, the owner will come to carry his purse in the street on Shabbos.
(a) In the event that no Nochri is available - the Mishnah allows him to place the purse on the donkey.
(b) Giving it to the Nochri preferable - because whereas one is not Chayav on Shevisas Nochri (to stop a Nochri from performing a Melachah on Shabbos) min ha'Torah, one is Chayav on Shevisas Beheimah.
(c) If there is no Nochri and Shabbos arrives, he must be careful to ...
1. ... place the purse on the donkey - after it has begun to walk, and to ...
2. ... remove the purse from it - before it stops ...
(d) ... so that the donkey should not perform an Akirah and a Hanachah with his purse.
(a) Should he fail to adhere to the two previous rulings - he transgresses the Isur of Mechamer Achar Behemto' ...
(b) ... which we learn from the Pasuk in Yisro "Lo Sa'aseh Kol Melachah Atah ... u'Vehemt'cha" - the combination of which form Mechamer.
(c) There is no fixed Shi'ur as to how much the animal must carry in order to be Chayav.
(a) Not directly related to the previous rulings, the owner of a loaded donkey must stop when he arrives in town with a laden donkey on Shabbos - as soon as he reaches the first guarded Chatzer.
(b) .. at which point he removes the vessels that are not Muktzah there and then, whereas those that are - he simply unties and lets them drop to the ground (See Tiferes Yisrael).
(a) The Mishnah permits untying Peki'ei Amir - (stalks containing ears of corn that are tied with two knots, one at each end) that are lying in front of an animal, on Shabbos ...
(b) ... because untying it renders it a food (i.e. otherwise, the animal is unable to eat it).
(c) And he goes on to permit scattering ...
1. ... 'Kipin' - (wet cedar-branches), but not ...
2. ... 'Zirin' - (Peki'ei Amir that are tied with an additional knot in the middle).
(d) In view of the previous ruling, the Mishnah ...
1. ... forbids scattering Kipin - because once he unbties them, they are already a food, and scattering them in front of the animal is 'Tircha Yeseirah' (excessive effort).
2. ... nevertheless permit scattering Zirin - which allows their smell to escape (because otherwise the animal will not eat them).
(a) The Mishnah forbids cutting up the stubble of produce (Shachas, also known as 'Aspasta') for one's animals on Shabbos - because it is 'Tircha Yeseira' ...
(b) ... irrespective of whether it is for a small animal or a large oneDoes he differentiate between a small animal (Dakah) and a large one (Gasah).
(a) The Tana Kama incorporates - carobs in this ruling.
(b) Rebbi Yehudah disagrees - with the latter ruling, permitting the cutting-up of carobs for small animals.
(c) Their teeth are small.
(d) The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.
(a) The Mishnah forbids feeding a camel by means of Ovsin - (force-feeding it [by pushing the food right down its throat) or Dorsin - (force-feeding it to a slightly lesser degree).
(b) "Ein Ovsin" literally means - not to make a feeding-trough [in its stomach).
(c) What the Tana writes 'Ein Mamrim es ha'Agalim', he means -
(d) He does however, permit 'Mal'itin' (by a calf) and 'Mehalk'tin' (by a chicken) - which both mean pushing the food to a spot where the animal is still able to spit is out).
(a) The Mishnah - permits adding water to bran (to feed animals) ...
(b) ... but forbids - actually mixing them.
(a) The Tana - forbids placing water in front of bees and doves in a dove-cot - but permits doing so for ducks, chickens ...
(b) ... and homing-pigeons ...
(c) ... which are called 'Yonei Hardesi'os' - because King Herod kept them in his palace.
(d) He forbids feeding the bees and the doves in the dove-cot - 1. Because he is not obligated to feed them, and 2. Because they are capable of looking after themselves.
(a) The Mishnah - permits cutting up both a gourd for an animal (see Tos. Yom-Tov) and a carcass for dogs on Shabbos.
(b) The Mishnah is referring to - a gourd that has already been detached ...
(c) ... which is permitted - even though it is generally considered human food.
(d) The animal under discussion - may even have died on Shabbos ...
(e) ... so that, during Bein ha'Shemashos it was still designated for humans.
(a) Rebbi Yehudah disagrees - with the latter case ...
(b) ... because any food that is fit for human consumption, the owner will not designate for animals (in which case it is Muktzah).
(c) The same will apply - even if the animal is sick.
(d) The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.
(a) When the Mishnah writes ...
1. ... 'Mefirin Nedarim be'Shabbos', it is referring to - a husband or a father (annulling the Nedarim of his wife and his daughter. Respectively).
2. ... 've'Nish'alin ... ' it is referring to - anybody else asking a Chacham to annul his vows ...
(b) ... which is permitted - provided is for the needs of Shabbos.
(c) The former is not subject to the same condition - because the husband/father only has until nightfall to annul the Neder (unlike anybody else, who can wait until the next day to have his neder annulled).
(a) When the Tana writes ...
1. ... 'Pok'kin es ha'Ma'or', he means that - one is allowed to stop-up a window with a board or with something that one usually uses for that purpose (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
2. ... 'Mod'din es ha'Matlis' - he means that one may measure a cloth that became Tamei to see whether it measures three by three finger-breadths ...
(b) ... to ascertain - whether it renders Tamei the Taharos that it touched (since a cloth that measures less than that is not Metamei.
(c) And when he adds 've'es ha'Mikvah', he means - that one is permitted to measure a Mikvah, to see whether it measures an Amah by an Amah by three Amos.
(d) Despite the fact that measuring on Shabbos is generally Asur mi'de'Rabbanan, the Mishnah permits these two - because they are for a D'var Mitzvah.
(a) The Mishnah cites an episode that occurred in the days of the father of Rebbi Tzadok's father and another Tana - Aba Shaul ben Botnis.
(b) The case concerned an uncovered pathway with windows of houses on either side. They were worried that - a very sick man in one of the houses would die on Shabbos, renderring Tamei the house on the other side ...
(c) ... via a barrel that was wedged between the two walls bordering the pathway.
(a) To prevent the Tum'ah from escaping from the house where the dying man was lying - they covered the window of the house opposite with an earthenware jug ...
(b) ... which did not become Tamei (in which case it would not have prevented the Tum'ah from escaping) - because it was placed with the outside facing the house which contained the Meis, and an earthenware vessel does not become Tamei via its outside.
(c) It subsequently became necessary to measure the barrel - because for some reason, they needed to remove the jar from the window.
(a) They took the pot that was tied to a reed - up onto the roof of one of the houses and lowered it to the crack in the barrel, to see whether it measured a Tefach, in which case it would transmit Tum'ah from one side of the pathway to the other (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) They used specifically...
1. ... a pot that was a Tefach wide in order to determine if the crack in the barrel measured a Tefach.
2. ... a reed - since it is fit to use for animal fodder, in which case they would not tie it to the pot with a permanent knot (which is prohibited on Shabbos)
(c) Besides the Heter to stop up a window on Shabbos, the Tana learns from this episode - that one is permitted to measure and to tie knots on Shabbos.
(d) One is permitted to ...
1. ... make a knot on Shabbos provided it is not a permanent one.
2. ... measure if it is not for a D'var Mitzvah - if it is teach a Halachah (as it did in the current case).
NISHLEMAH MASECHES SHABBOS