ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) If one forgot to bring the knife for the B'ris Milah before Shabbos - Rebbi Eliezer permits bringing it for the B'ris Milah even via the street, if necessary.
(b) He requires however, that one brings it 'revealed' - to demonstrate one's love for the Mitzvah (that one is even prepared to desecrate Shabbos for its sake).
(c) He waives this requirement however, in time of danger - when the Nochrim decreed on the Milah ...
(d) ... in which case he covers it in the presence of two witnesses, to avoid people people suspecting him of carrying other things.
(a) Rebbi Eliezer further permits someone who has no ...
1. ... knife to perform the B'ris Milah - to make a fire and use the coals to manufacture a knife.
2. ... firewood to make a fire - to chop firewood.
(b) Rebbi Akiva disagrees with Rebbi Eliezer in that - he forbids any Melachah on Shabbos that could have been performed before Shabbos.
(c) When he adds that 'Anything that cannot be done on Erev Shabbos overrides Shabbos' - he is referring to the B'ris Milah itself.
(d) The Halachah is - like Rebbi Akiva.
(a) Two of the three things (regarding the actual Mitzvah itself) that the Tana inserts in the list of 'Tzorchei Milah' which are permitted, are Milah and 'P'ri'ah' - (tearing the skin that covers the 'Atarah' (at the tip of the Gid) and folding it over (to reveal the Atarah)
(b) The third thing he permits is 'Metzitzah' - (sucking out the blood)
(c) ... which would otherwise be forbidden - because it causes the blood to flow (and drawing blood from the body is Asur on Shabbos [see Tiferes Yisrael).
(a) He also permits placing on the wound an 'Isp'lanis ...
1. ... a plaster (or the equivalent thereof) and 'K'mon ...
2. ... cumin.
(b) In the event that one was unable to grind the cumin before Shabbos, one is permitted - to chew it with his teeth until it becomes ground and to then apply it to the wound.
(c) He is not permitted to grind it in the regular manner - since it is possible to it with a Shinuy (a change).
(d) It was also customary to add a mixture comprising wine and oil. If they were unable to mix them before Shabbos - then one pours them on the wound separately.
(a) The Mishnah now discusses the little tight covering with which they tended to cover the Milah - to prevent the skin from growing back and covering the Atarah.
(b) If they were unable to make it before Shabbos - they would wrap a cloth around the Gid ...
(c) ... if need be even to wrap it around one's finger and bringing it from another house in the same Chatzer, or even from another Chatzer (with which do not share a joint Eiruv (see Tiferes Yisrael).
(a) The Tana Kama permits bathing the baby (which was customary in those days) on Shabbos, both before the Milah and after it ...
(b) ... but only by means of splashing water on him ...
(c) ... and even that using his hands, but not with a K'li.
(d) Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah - permits even bathing the baby regularly both before the Milah and after it.
(b) Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah even permits - bathing the baby on the third day after the Milah that falls on Shabbos ...
(c) ... even if the water was heated on Shabbos ...
(d) ... because a wound becomes most painful on the third day ...
(e) ... as we find with the men of Sh'chem, who had circumcised, and about whom the Torah writes "And it was on the third day when they were in pain ... ".
(f) The Halachah is - like Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah (see Tiferes Yisrael).
(a) The Mishnah forbids circumcising a Safek - (as to whether he is an eighth or ninth-month baby) on Shabbos.
(b) If he were definitely an eighth-month baby - he would be considered a stone, and his Milah would definitely not override Shabbos.
(c) An Androginus - possesses both male and female organs (rendering him a Safek as to whether he is a boy or a girl).
(d) Rebbi Yehudah disagrees - with Androginus, whom he considers a boy.
(a) Rebbi Yehudah learns his ruling from the word "Kol" (in the Pasuk in Lech-L'cha "Himol lachem Kol Zachar") ...
(b) ... whereas the Tana Kama learns his from the word "Orlaso" (in the Pasuk there "es B'sar Orlaso" - implying that the baby must be a complete Areil (to preclude an Androginus who is half female).
(a) If for some reason a baby was not circumcised on the eighth day - the father is not permitted circumcise him on Shabbos.
(b) The Mishnah rules that if someone has two babies to circumcise, one whose Milah is due after Shabbos, the other, on Shabbos, and who then forgets and circumcises the one whose time falls due only after Shabbos, on Shabbos - he is Chayav.
(c) In a similar case, but where the first baby was due to be circumcised before Shabbos, and the father mistakenly circumcises him on Shabbos, Rebbi Eliezer rules that he is Chayav. Rebbi Yehoshua rules - that he is Patur ...
(d) ... because, despite the fact that the father desecrated the Shabbos - he performed a Mitzvah (as opposed to the previous case, where he did not.
(a) The earliest a baby can be circumcised is on the eighth day. Notwithstanding illness, the latest is - the twelfth.
(b) He is circumcised him on ...
1. ... the ninth - if he was born during Bein-ha'Shemashos (dusk), since it is then not certain whether Shabbos is the eighth day or the ninth.
2. ... the tenth - if he was born during Bein-ha'Shemashos of the previous Friday afternoon.
3. ... the eleventh - in the previous case, but where Shabbos is followed by Yom-Tov (which Milah does not override either [See Tos. Yom-Tov]).
4. ... the twelfth - if Shabbos is followed by two days Rosh ha'Shanah.
(c) One cannot circumcise him on the second day, like one can on other Yamim-Tovim - since the two days of Rosh ha'Shanah are considered one long day.
(d) The Tana rules that a sick baby - may not be circumcised until he recovers ...
(e) ... though in fact - one must sometimes wait an additional seven days (see Tiferes Yisrael).
(a) The Mishnah now discusses Tzitzin - (strands of that remain from the Orlah) ha'Me'akvin es ha'Milah.
(b) The Tana defines Tzitzin ha'Me'akvin es ha'Milah as 'Basar ha'Chofeh es Rov ha'Atarah'. The definition of ...
1. ... 'Atarah' is - the layer of flesh that surrounds the Gid near its top.
2. ... 'Basar ha'Chofeh es Rov ha'Atarah' is - the majority either of its circumference or of its height.
(c) The ramifications of the fact that the baby remains an Areil, (assuming that he is a Kohen) are - that he forbidden to eat Terumah.
(d) We learn that a Kohen Areil is forbidden to eat Terumah - from a Gezeirah-Shavah from Pesach.
(a) The Tana requires a fat baby whose Milah is completed, but who, due to his obesity, looks as if it is not - to have the excessive flesh to be removed (due to Mar'is ha'Ayin).
(b) The Mishnah rules that someone who performs Milah but not P'ri'ah - it is as if he has not circumcised.
(c) Whilst he is still busy with the Milah, the Mishnah allows the Mohel - to cut off the strands that are not crucial to the Milah on Shabbos, something he is forbidden to do once he has his removed his hand from the location of the Milah.