POINT BY POINT OUTLINE
prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
1) OTHER CURES
(a) (Rav Huna): For a fever on the third day (alternatively - that comes every third day), one should take seven small branches of a date tree..., wrap them and hang them next to the throat by a hair;
(b) (R. Yochanan): For an intense fever, take an iron knife, go to a bush, and tie a hair onto the bush;
1. The first day, he should make a small notch [in the bush] and say "va'Yera Mal'ach Hash-m Elav..." The second day, he makes a notch and says "Asura Na v'Er'eh [...Madu'a Lo Yiv'ar ha'Sneh.]" The third day, he makes a notch and says "va'Yar Hash-m Ki Sar Lir'os." (This is a sign that the sickness should be Sar, i.e. leave.)
(c) Objection (Rav Acha brei d'Rava): It would be better to say "Al Tikrav Halom" (it should not come close. If he merely hints that it leave, it might return!)
(d) (Rav Acha): Rather, the first day, he says "va'Yera Mal'ach..." and "...Asura Na...". The second day, he says "va'Yar Hash-m...". The third day, he says "Al Tikrav Halom."
(e) When he cuts the bush, he should bend down and say 'Hashem did not put his Shechinah on you because you are tallest of the trees, rather, because you are the lowest;
1. Just like fire saw Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah and fled from them, so may it (my fever) flee from me.'
(f) For boils, one should say 'Baz Bazyei...' (a text containing names of angels).
(g) For blisters (alternatively - one possessed by a Shed) one should say 'a drawn sword...'
(h) For [warding off] a Shed one should say 'Havis d'Pakik...'
(i) For the Shed that inhabits the Beis ha'Kisei one should say 'on the head of a lion...'
2) EVERYONE MAY GO WITH BELLS
(a) (Mishnah): Princes may go out with bells. [Everyone is permitted...]
(b) Question: Who is the Tana of the Mishnah?
(c) Answer #1 (R. Oshaya): It is R. Shimon ben Gamliel, who says that Benei Yisrael are Benei Melachim.
(d) Answer #2 (Rava): All agree with our Mishnah. The bells are woven into the garment. (There is no concern lest one remove it to avoid appearing haughty.)
3) WHAT IS DARCHEI HA'EMORI?
(a) (Mishnah - R. Meir): One may go out [on Shabbos] with a locust egg, the tooth of a fox, or a nail from a crucifix for the sake of a cure;
(b) Chachamim forbid these even during the week due to Darchei ha'Emori (following Nochri superstitions).
(c) (Gemara): The locust egg is [hung in the ear] for an ear ache;
(d) The tooth of a fox is for sleep. A tooth from a live fox helps one who sleeps too much, and a tooth from a dead fox helps one to sleep.
(e) A nail from a crucifix helps for swelling [due to a blow from iron].
(f) (Mishnah - R. Meir): [These are permitted] for the sake of a cure.
(g) (Abaye and Rava): Anything done to heal is not [forbidden due to] Darchei ha'Emori;
(h) If it does not [have a logical or medical reason why it should] heal, it is Darchei ha'Emori.
(i) Question (Beraisa #1): If a tree's produce falls off, one ties a ribbon around the tree and puts stones on it.
1. We understand putting stones on it. (This will weaken it, so it will not cast down its produce.) However, there is no sound reason for the ribbon!
(j) Answer: The ribbon informs people to pray that the tree should improve;
1. (Beraisa): "V'Tamei Tamei Yikra" - a Metzora announces his plight to many people, so they will pray for him.
(k) (Ravina): There is a practice to hang a cluster of dates on a tree whose dates fall down. This is like the Tana of Beraisa #1.
(l) A Chacham recited Perakim seven and eight of the Tosefta of Shabbos.
(m) (R. Chiya bar Avin): All of these are Darchei ha'Emori, except for two:
1. If a bone is caught in a person's throat, we put a bone of the same species on his forehead and say 'Chad Chad Nachis Bala Bala Nachis Chad Chad.' (R. Akiva Eiger Y.D. 336:1 - a Cherem forbids using any cure in the Gemara (lest it be done wrong, and people will doubt its validity), except for this one.)
2. If a fishbone is stuck in the foodpipe, we say 'Ninatzta k'Machat...'
(n) Saying 'Gad Gedi... (I should have good Mazel...)' is Darchei ha'Emori;
(o) R. Yehudah says, Gad is [forbidden for another reason. It is] the name of idolatry - "ha'Orchim la'Gad Shulchan."
(p) If [at night] a man calls his wife by his name and vice-versa, this is Darchei ha'Emori;
(q) Saying 'Doni Dani (my barrels should be strong)' is Darchei ha'Emori;
(r) R. Yehudah says, Dan is the name of idolatry - "...Chei Elohecha Dan."
4) WHAT IS DARCHEI HA'EMORI? (cont.)
(a) Telling a male raven 'chirp' or a female raven 'whistle, and turn your tail to me for good' is Darchei ha'Emori.
(b) Saying 'slaughter this rooster because it crowed like a raven (alternatively - later than the others)' or 'slaughter this hen because it crowed like a rooster' is Darchei ha'Emori.
(c) Saying 'I will drink and leave over, I will drink and leave over' (in order that my wine will be blessed) is Darchei ha'Emori;
(d) Fixing the shell from which a chick emerged on the wall in front of it [so it will not die] is Darchei ha'Emori;
(e) Stirring in front of a chick is Darchei ha'Emori;
(f) Dancing and counting 71 chicks in order that they will not die is Darchei ha'Emori;
(g) Dancing in front of Kutach (a dip, to strengthen it) or insisting that lentils cook in silence or that beans cook amidst noise is Darchei ha'Emori;
(h) Urinating in front of a pot in order that it will cook quickly is Darchei ha'Emori;
1. One may put a chip of mulberry wood or broken glass in to make it cook quickly;
2. Chachamim forbid broken glass due to danger.
(i) (Beraisa): One may put a handful of salt into a Ner [to make the oil clear,] so it will burn nicely;
(j) One may put mud or earthenware under a Ner, [to cool it] so it will burn longer.
1. (Rav Zutra): If one covers an oil lamp or leaves a kerosene lamp exposed, he transgresses 'Bal Tashchis' (it is wasteful. It causes them to burn faster than necessary.)
(k) Saying 'wine and life for Rabanan' when mixing wine is not Darchei ha'Emori;
1. A case occurred in which R. Akiva made a [wedding] feast for his son. On every cup of wine he said 'wine and life according to [the guidelines of] Rabanan, wine and life according to Rabanan and their Talmidim'.
5) THE GREAT GENERAL RULES OF SHABBOS
(a) (Mishnah): (We discuss liability for Melachah on Shabbos b'Shogeg, i.e. he forgot that it is Shabbos, or that this Melachah is forbidden, or both of these.) There is a great general rule of Shabbos - anyone who forgot Shabbos entirely and did many Melachos on many Shabbosos is liable only one Korban;
1. If he knew about Shabbos, and did many Melachos on many Shabbosos (each time he forgot that it is Shabbos), he is liable one Korban for every Shabbos;
2. If he remembered that the day is Shabbos, and did many Melachos on many Shabbosos (he forgot that these Melachos are forbidden), he is liable only one Korban for every Av Melachah;
3. One who does many Melachos resembling one Melachah (they are Toldos, i.e. derivatives of it) is liable only one Korban.