POINT BY POINT OUTLINE
prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
1) PREPARATIONS FOR PRAYER
(a) Objection #1 (Rav Sheshes): Is it such an exertion to return one's belt?!
(b) Objection #2 (Rav Sheshes): One may pray without a belt!
(c) Answer (to Objection #2): It is proper to pray with a belt, due to "Hikon Likras Elokecha Yisrael."
(d) Rabah bar Rav Huna would put on nice socks before praying due to "Hikon Likras Elokecha Yisrael."
(e) Rava would pray without his mantle and clench his hands on his fingers, [to appear undistinguished and to show fear,] like a slave in front of his Master.
(f) Rav Ashi: When there was suffering in the world, Rav Kahana would pray without his mantle and clench his hands, like a slave in front of his Master;
1. At times of Shalom, he would dress nicely and cover himself with a Talis due to "Hikon Likras Elokecha Yisrael."
(g) Rava saw Rav Hamnuna pray at length. He said 'he abandons eternal life (Torah) for temporary life! (Prayer is mostly for matters of this world.)
(h) Rav Hamnuna holds that Torah and Tefilah each have their time. (We do not rush Tefilah in order to return to learning.)
(i) R. Yirmeyah was learning with R. Zeira (his Rebbi). The time to pray was expiring. R. Yirmeyah quickly rose to pray. R. Zeira cited "Mesir Ozno mi'Shmo'a Torah Gam Tefilaso To'evah." (Hash-m despises the prayer of one who does not want to learn!)
2) THE TIME FOR JUDGMENT
(a) Question: What is considered the beginning of judgment?
(b) Answer #1 (R. Yirmeyah or R. Yonah): It is from when the judges cover their heads with Talesim.
(c) Answer #2 (the other of R. Yirmeyah and R. Yonah): It is from when the litigants begin to state their claims.
(d) They do not argue. Answer #2 is when the judges had already been judging. Answer #1 is when they were not.
(e) R. Ami and R. Asi were learning between the pillars [that support the Beis Medrash]. They would periodically rap the bolt on the door and say 'if anyone has a case, come in!'
(f) Rav Chisda and Rabah bar Rav Huna were judging the whole day, and they were getting weak.
(g) (Rav Chiya bar Rav mi'Difti): "Va'Ya'amod ha'Am Al Moshe Min ha'Boker Ad ha'Erev" - if Moshe indeed judged Yisrael the entire day, when did he learn?!
1. Rather, if one judges a case to its ultimate truth, even for a short time, the Torah considers him Hash-m's partner in creation. It says "Min ha'Boker Ad ha'Erev", like it says regarding creation "va'Yhi Erev va'Yhi Boker Yom Echad."
(h) Question: Until when do we sit in judgment?
(i) Answer (Rav Sheshes): We sit until the time to eat (this will be explained);
(j) (Rav Chama): He learns from "Iy Lach Eretz she'Malkech Na'ar v'Sarayich ba'Boker Yochelu Ashrech Eretz she'Malkech Ben Chorim v'Sarayich ba'Es Yochelu bi'Gvurah v'Lo va'Shesi" - they eat in the Gevurah (might) of Torah, and not in the drinking of wine.
(k) (Beraisa): The first hour of the day is when Ludim eat. (They are cannibals, they immediately fulfill their ravenous appetites);
(l) Bandits eat in the second hour. (They stay up at night.) Heirs [who did not work for their money] eat in the third hour. Workers eat in the fourth hour, most people eat in the fifth hour...
(m) Interjection: Rav Papa taught that most people eat in the fourth hour!
(n) Correction: Rather, most people eat in the fourth hour. Workers eat in the fifth hour. Chachamim eat in the sixth hour;
(o) (If one did not eat before noon,) eating after this does not help (it might be harmful). It is like throwing a rock into a pouch with little wine.
(p) (Abaye): This is only if he did not taste anything all morning. If he ate [even a bit], there is no problem.
3) DIVREI KEDUSHAH IN A BATHHOUSE
(a) (Rav Ada bar Ahavah): One may pray in the bathhouse.
(b) Question (Beraisa): In a bathhouse:
1. [In the outer room,] where people are clothed, one may say Shma and pray, and there is no need to say that one may give (greet someone with) 'Shalom'. One may put on Tefilin, and there is no need to say that one need not remove Tefilin. (Ran - an Amora must explain his words, so we cannot say that Rav Ada referred only to the outer room.)
2. [In the middle room,] where some people are clothed and others naked, one may give Shalom, but one may not say Shma or pray. One need not remove Tefilin, but he may not put them on;
3. [In the inner room,] where everyone is naked, one may not give Shalom, and there is no need to say one may not say Shma or pray. One must remove Tefilin, and there is no need to say he may not put them on.
(c) Answer #1: Rav Ada permits prayer in an empty bathhouse.
(d) Objection: R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina taught that all Isurim of a bathhouse apply even when no one is there; and all Isurim of a bathroom apply even when no excrement is there!
(e) Answer #2: Rav Ada permits prayer in a new bathhouse.
(f) Question: Ravina never resolved this question!
1. Question (Ravina): If one designated a place to be a bathroom, does it take effect (to forbid Divrei Kedushah there before it is used)?
2. Suggestion: The same question applies to a bathhouse!
(g) Answer: Perhaps the question pertains only to a bathroom, for it is more repulsive.
(h) (Beraisa): [In the inner room] one may not give Shalom.
(i) This supports Rav Hamnuna;
1. (Rav Hamnuna): One may not give Shalom in a bathhouse [for this is a name of Hash-m - "va'Yikra Lo Hash-m Shalom."]
(j) Question: If so, it should also be forbidden to mention 'Emunah' in a Beis ha'Kisei, for it says "ha'Kel ha'Ne'eman"!
1. Suggestion: Perhaps it is indeed forbidden!
2. Rejection: Rav permitted mentioning 'Emunah' in a Beis ha'Kisei.
(k) Answer: That is different, for Emunah [is an attribute of Hash-m. It] is not His name. The Targum of ha'Kel ha'Ne'eman is Eloka Mehemna (who is faithful).
1. Hash-m Himself is called Shalom - "va'Yikra Lo Hash-m Shalom."
4) THE GIVER SHOULD INFORM THE RECEIVER
(a) (Rava bar Machsiya citing Rav): One who gives a gift should inform the receiver - "Lada'as Ki Ani Hash-m Mekadishchem."
(b) Support (Beraisa): "Lada'as Ki Ani Hash-m Mekadishchem" - Hash-m told Moshe "I have a great gift in my treasure house, i.e. Shabbos. I want to give it to Yisrael. Go tell them';
(c) R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, this teaches that one who gives bread to a child should inform the child's mother.
(d) Question: How should he do this?
(e) Answer (Abaye): He should smear some oil between the child's eyes and paint around the eyes. (When the mother asks about this, the child will mention that he received bread).
(f) Question: Nowadays, people would suspect that this was for the sake of witchcraft. What should one do instead?
(g) Answer (Rav Papa): He should smear between the child's eyes some food like he gave to the child.
(h) Question: Rav Chama b'Rebbi Chanina taught that one who gives a gift need not inform the receiver - "u'Moshe Lo Yoda Ki Karan Or Panav"! (Moshe did not know that his face was radiating.)
(i) Answer: If the receiver will find out anyway, the giver need not inform him. If not, he must.
(j) Question: Hash-m told Moshe to inform Yisrael about Shabbos, even though they would find out anyway!
(k) Answer: They would not find out about the reward for guarding Shabbos.
(l) Rav Chisda had two [sets of] Matanos (Zero'a, Lechayayim and Kevah given to a Kohen from a Chulin animal) from oxen. He offered them to whoever would tell him a teaching of Rav that he had not yet heard.
(m) (Rava bar Machsiya citing Rav): One who gives a gift should inform the receiver - "Lada'as Ki Ani Hash-m Mekadishchem."
(n) Rav Chisda gave the Matanos to him.
1. Rava: Are Rav's teachings so dear to you?!
2. Rav Chisda: Yes!
3. Rava: This is like Rav taught, that a garment is dear to the wearer! (You are Rav's Talmid, therefore his teachings are dear to you.)
4. Rav Chisda: I like that more than the first teaching. If I had more Matanos, I would give them to you!
5) MORE TEACHINGS OF RAVA BAR MACHSIYA
(a) (Rava Bar Machsiya): One should not favor one child over the others. A small amount of fine wool that Yakov added to Yosef's garment caused [his brothers to envy him, resulting in] the descent of our ancestors to Mitzrayim!
(b) (Rava Bar Machsiya): One should strive to live in a city that was settled recently, for then its sins are fewer;
1. Question: What is the meaning of "Hinei Na ha'Ir ha'Zos Krovah...v'Hi Mitz'ar"?
i. Suggestion: It (Tzo'ar) is nearby. "V'Hi Mitz'ar" - it is small.
ii. Rejection: There would be no need to say this. They could see it!
2. Answer: Rather, because it was settled [more] recently (one year after Sedom), its sins are fewer.
(c) (R. Avin): He learns from "Imaltah Na." The Gematri'a (numerical value) of Na is 51 (alluding to 51 years), whereas Sedom was settled for 52:
1. Sodom was serene for 26 years (for 26 of the 52 years it was afflicted) - "Shteim Esre Shanah Ovdu Es Kedarla'omer u'Shlosh Esre Shanah Maradu; Uv'Arba Esre Shanah..."