BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
[144a - 15 lines; 144b - 40 lines]
1) [line 4] זיתים וענבים יוכיחו ZEISIM VA'ANAVIM YOCHICHU - That is, the Tana Kama proves that even animal milk, which is fit for a person to drink, should need Ratzon (consent) to be Machshir from the fact that olive oil and wine are only Machshir with Ratzon although they are fit for grownups.
2) [line 1] פגעין PAGA'IN - (O.F. prunes) plums
3) [line 1] פרישין PERISHIN - (O.F. codoinz) quinces
4) [line 1] עוזרדין UZRADIN - (O.F. cormes) sorb-apples; alt. medlars, crab-apples
5) [line 17] קוצים KOTZIM - (O.F. jardons) cacti
6) [line 18] קדש KIDESH (KIL'AYIM)
(a) It is forbidden to plant different types of crops together as it states in the Torah, "Sadecha Lo Sizra Kil'ayim" - "Do not plant different species (together) in your field" (Vayikra 19:19), and "Lo Sizra Karmecha Kil'ayim, Pen Tikdash ha'Melei'ah ha'Zera Asher Tizra u'Sevu'as ha'Karem" - "You shall not sow your vineyard with other species, lest the fruit of the seed which you have sown, and the fruit of the vineyard, be forfeited" (Devarim 22:9). See .
(b) If one sows Kil'ayim, the produce becomes prohibited ("Kidesh," from the word in the verse, "Tikdash").
7) [line 20] ערביא ARAVYA - Arabia
8) [line 22] ערביא אתרא ARAVYA ASRA - Arabia is an entire area populated with many people
9) [line 24] תרדין TERADIN - beets
10) [line 28] חומץ CHOMETZ - vinegar
11) [line 28] מוחל MOCHAL - a watery secretion of olives
12) [line 32] עיקול בית הבד IKUL BEIS HA'BAD - the lattice work of the olive or wine press made of poles interwoven with thin branches or reeds, which covers and keeps together the olives or grapes beneath the press
13) [line 33] ציחצוחי שמן TZICHTZUCHEI SHEMEN - drops of diluted oil
14) [line 33] מאי בינייהו MAI BEINAIHU - with regard to what type of Mochal are Rebbi Yakov and Rebbi Shimon arguing in the Beraisa? (RITVA)
15) [line 33] דאתי בתר איצצתא D'ASI BASAR ITZATZTA - the Mochal that flows after the olives have been packed together in the vat for a few days. (Such Mochal does not have drops of oil, but the owner is pleased with it.)
16) [line 38] זב ZAV
(a) A Zav, a man who emits Zov two or three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. (Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter.)
(b) A Zav causes food items that he touches to become a Rishon l'Tum'ah if they have had a Hechsher l'Tum'ah (see next entry). Even if he does not touch the food (as in the case of milking a goat), he is Metamei it through Heseit, otherwise known as Tum'as Masa, if he is carries it or causes it to be moved.
(c) A Zav, Zavah, Nidah, and Yoledes who moves a person or object that is Tahor is Metamei the person or object. (Only Zav, Zavah, Nidah, and Yoledes can be Metamei people or objects in this manner.)
17) [line 39] איתכשר ISKASHER (HECHSHER OCHLIN)
(a) Foods become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah, but only after they first become wet by coming into contact with one of seven liquids: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and honey. Making foods wet in a manner that enables them to become Tamei is called "Hechsher." After Hechsher, even after the foods dry they can still become Tamei.
(b) The food can only become Tamei if the owner of the food was pleased with the liquid that wetted his food. This is learned from the Pasuk "v'Chi Yutan Mayim Al Zera..." - "If water has been placed on seeds and then the dead body [of a Sheretz] fell upon them, the seeds are Tamei" (Vayikra 11:38). The word "Yutan" in the Pasuk is written without a Vav and can therefore be read, "Yiten" - "he places." However, according to the Mesorah it is read "Yutan" - "it was placed." From this we learn that water or other liquids that fall on the food must be desirable to the owner of the food, as though he himself applied them.
(c) It is necessary only for the owner to desire the liquid; he need not desire that the liquid come into contact with the food. That is, even if the owner desires the liquid for an entirely different purpose, if the liquid later comes into contact with food it will enable the food to become Tamei. On the other hand, if the owner only intended to dispose of the liquid it does not enable the food to become Tamei, since only liquids that are significant can cause Hechsher.
18) [line 39] טיפה המלוכלכת על פי הדד TIPAH HA'MELUCHLECHES AL PI HA'DAD - the first drop of milk that comes out of the teat causes the Hechsher, since it is considered a Mashkeh.