BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
[85a - 24 lines; 85b - 23 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Rashi 85a DH v'Ha Ika Makom Keranos : ד"ה והא איכא מקום קרנות
The words "v'Lizro'a ba'Emtza" ולזרוע באמצע
should be "v'Lizro'a ba'Emtza'i" ולזרוע באמצעי
 Rashi 85a DH b'Memalei : ד"ה בממלא
The picture which is included in our printing of the Gemara is not quite accurate (RASHASH). Rashi on the Mishnah (84b) explains that it is possible to plant more than one seed on all of the outer sides, because the leniency of "Rosh Tor" is applicable in an Arugah; one must leave only a small space in the corner between the row of seeds on the eastern side and the row of seeds on the southern and northern sides. See our diagram in Graphic #2.
 Tosfos 85a DH Amar Rav : ד"ה אמר רב
The picture which is included in our printing of the Gemara, as well as the picture that appears in the Chochmas Shlomo here, are not relevant to the Gemara at this point, as the Bach (#3) points out. Its proper place is on 85b, in Tosfos DH Gezeirah. See Graphic #2.
 Hagahos ha'Bach 85a:
There are a number of difficulties with the diagrams of the Bach here.
(a) In the Bach's first drawing (#1), the diagram should look like it does in our text of Rashi DH v'Ha Ika Makom Keranos.
(b) In Bach (#2), the diagram is incomprehensible. It appears that his intention was to indicate that the small squares in the corners of the Arugah in his picture are all left unplanted and empty of seeds, and the space between the corners are sown on every side. See our diagram in Graphic #2.
(c) In Bach (#3), the picture should look like the picture that appears in our text of Rashi DH b'Memalei.
 Gemara 85b [line 4]:
The words "she'Nir'eh Sof Sadeh" שנראה סוף שדה
should be "she'Nir'eh k'Sof Sadehu" שנראה כסוף שדהו
(Dikdukei Sofrim #90. This is also the Girsa in Mishnayos Kil'ayim.)
 Gemara 85b [line 15]:
The words "Shani Hacha, d'Ika Sracha" שאני הכא דאיכא שראכא
should be "Shani Hasam, d'Ika Sracha" שאני התם דאיכא שראכא
This is the Girsa of Tosfos DH Eisvei, Ritva, and Aruch (Erech Shadchan). It also appears to be the Girsa of Rashi.
 Gemara 85b [line 18]:
"u'Memalei Karnoseiha Kol Mah she'Yirtzeh" וממלא קרנותיה כל מה שירצה
(a) The Ritva's text did not have the word "Karnoseha." It seems that Rabeinu Chananel also did not have that word in his text. Similarly, from the explanation of Rashi it appears that he did not have the word "Karnoseha" in his text, for he does not mention the planting of the corners at all.
(b) See Rashi earlier (DH b'Noteh Shurah), where Rashi asks a question on the explanation of his teachers from the word "Keranos." If his teachers had the word "Karnoseha" here in the Gemara, then Rashi's question on their explanation is answerable, because their explanation is based on the Gemara here. Also, according to the explanation of Tosfos (DH Amar Rebbi Yochanan), the word "Karnoseha" here is appropriate.
 Rashi 85b DH b'Noteh Shurah : ד"ה בנוטה שורה
The words "b'Tzad Keren Mizrachis Tzefonis" בצד קרן מזרחית צפונית
should be "l'Tzad Keren Mizrachis Tzefonis" לצד קרן מזרחית צפונית
 Tosfos 85b DH u'Shmuel : ד"ה ושמואל
The words "d'Afilu Milei ha'Keranos" דאפילו מילי הקרנות
should be "d'Afilu Yimalei ha'Keranos" דאפילו ימלא הקרנות
 Tosfos 85b DH v'Ha Ika [at the end] : ד"ה והא איכא
"Tefach Al Tefach" טפח על טפח
It seems that the Girsa should be "Tefachayim Al Tefachayim טפחים על טפחים (and the picture which is included in our printing of the Gemara is not accurate; but see the Chochmas Mano'ach, who labors to justify it).
1) [line 1] וקים להו לרבנן V'KIM LEHU L'RABANAN - that is, the Rabanan, through their knowledge of horticulture, were aware that 5 plants in a 6-Tefach-square patch each nurture from a different part of the land. (This was necessary, since the verse does not describe the *size* of the patch in which 5 seedlings may be planted. On the other hand, had the verse not allowed 5 seedlings in one patch, the Rabanan would not have permitted sowing them so close together *even though* they do not nurture from the same part of the land. -TOSFOS DH v'Kim)
2) [line 1] ינקי YANKEI - take nourishment
3) [line 4] לא תסיג..." " "LO SASIG..." - "Do not move your neighbor's boundary (marker) which was set in place by the first settlers." (Devarim 19:14) - Besides the simple meaning of this verse, Chazal teach that it prohibits planting next to your neighbor's field, since your plants will draw nourishment from your neighbor's soil.
4) [line 10] בישובה של ארץ B'YISHUVAH SHEL ARETZ - in the settlement/cultivation of the land
5) [line 11] מלא קנה זהMALEI KANEH ZEH - a full measure of this [soil]
6) [line 14] כחויא K'CHIVYA - like a snake
7) [line 15] בני חורין מנכסיהן BNEI CHORIN MI'NICHSEIHEN - people who were made free of their property (by being chased out)
8) [line 16] חוץ מגבוליה CHUTZ MI'GEVULEHA - besides its perimeter (which was used for walking)
9) [line 18] פרסה PARSAH - foot
10) [line 22] ערוגה בחורבה ARUGAH B'CHURVAH - one vegetable patch planted by itself. One may not plant other patches around it. (lit. a vegetable patch in a barren area)
11) [line 22] והאיכא מקום קרנות? VEHA'IKA MEKOM KERANOS? - Why do we not allow the person to sow many Arugos alongside each other, by having him sow only 2 1/2 Tefachim along each edge, rather than along the entire edge? (See Graphic #2 - here we are explaining the Sugya according to Rashi. The 2 1/2 Tefachim allow for a 3-Tefach separation between the seedlings in different Arugos: e.g. one Tefach north, and two east. See Tosfos' question on Rashi's calculation on Daf 85b, three lines from the bottom of the page.)
12) [line 23] בממלא את הקרנות B'MEMALEI ES HA'KERANOS - Rav, who said that the Arugah must be a lone Arugah, was discussing a situation where the owner sowed along the entire lengths of two facing edges of the Arugah, and only sowed one seed in the center of the other two facing edges and another in the middle of the Arugah (see Graphic #2, and Maharsha).
13) [last line] ?וליזרע מאבראי ולא לימלי מגואי V'LIZRA ME'AVRAI V'LO LIMLI MI'GAVAI? - That is, why did Rav assume that the Arugah was sown in the manner described above (note #12)? He should have assumed that the Arugah was arranged in the manner described in note #11, which would allow for planting Arugos alongside each other.
14) [line 1] ולא יהא אלא ראש תור ירק? V'LO YEHEI ELA ROSH TOR YEREK? - That is, if there is a clear distinction between two sown areas - for instance, if one is planted as a triangle, and another is planted as a row which passes along one of its points, they are not considered to be Kil'ayim even if they are sown near each other. (Similarly, rows in neighboring Arugos stand out as distinct, and should be permitted to be planted near each other.)
15) [line 7] הפקיע תלם אחד HIFKI'A TELEM ECHAD - if a person dug a furrow
16) [line 9] השורה HA'SHURAH - the Arugah (garden patch) (RASHI); alt., the dividing furrow (TOSFOS)
17) [line 12] קישואין KISHU'IN - cucumbers
18) [line 12] דילועין DELU'IN - gourds
19) [line 13] פול המצרי POL HA'MITZRI - the Egyptian bean (colocasia)
20) [line 15] שראכא SRACHA - long, entangled vines or leaves
21) [line 18] ועוגל בה חמשה V'OGEL BAH CHAMISHAH - and he makes within it a circular patch with a diameter of five Tefachim
22) [line 20] במחריב בין הביניים B'MACHARIV BEIN HA'BEINAYIM - when he leaves the perimeters (of the square patches) unplanted
23a) [line 21] שתי SHESI - lengthwise
b) [line 21] ערב EREV - widthwise
24) [last line] עבודת ירק בירק אחר AVODAS YEREK B'YEREK ECHAD - the amount of space required to be left between different species of plants (which is the amount of space needed for a farmer to tend to these crops)