BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
[83a - 31 lines; 83b - 55 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Rashi 83a DH Maskif Lah : ד"ה מתקיף לה
The words "Lashon Masa Mashma Lehu she'Hisitu Acherim" לשון משא משמע להו שהסיטו אחרים
should be "Lashon Masa Mashma Lehu she'Hisitum Acherim" לשון משא משמע להו שהסיטום אחרים
 Rashi 83a DH Bein Acherim she'Hisitu Osan : ד"ה בין אחרים שהסיטו אותן
"v'Hachi Mashma Hen v'Heseitan" והכי משמע הן והסיטן
The word "v'Heseitan" seems unnecessary. (-M. KORNFELD)
1) [line 17] היסטן HEISETAN
(a) The word Heseitan here refers to Tum'as Masa, i.e. that a person who is Tahor carried a person who is Tamei. Usually it means that a person who is Tamei moved (or outweighed on a balance scale) a person or object that is Tahor, which is in fact the conclusion of our Sugya (RASHI).
(b) In all other types of Tum'ah besides Zav, Zavah, Nidah, and Yoledes, the Tamei who moves a person or object that is Tahor does not make the person or object become Tamei. Only a Zav, etc. can be Metamei people or objects in this way. According to Rebbi Akiva, however, even Avodah Zarah can be Metamei people or objects in this way.
2) [line 19] זבין ZAVIN
(a) A Zav, a man who emits Zov two or three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter.
(b) A woman who has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her 11 days of Zivah, becomes a Zavah Gedolah, and is also an Av ha'Tum'ah.
(c) A Zav and a Zavah, like a Nidah and a Yoledes, can cause objects that are under them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether they touch them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav/ha'Zavah (or the Tachton of a Zav or Zavah). An object under a Zav or a Zavah becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon. Earthenware objects (Klei Cheres) cannot become Midras.
(d) A person who touches (Maga) or carries (Masa) either a Midras or a Zav or Zavah themselves, along with the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time, get the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah.
(e) Utensils or clothes which lie above the Zav or Zavah also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether they touch them or not. These are called the Elyon of a Zav or Zavah.
(f) The Chachamim decreed that Nochrim have the status of Zavim even if they never had a discharge of Zov or a show of blood. The decree was instituted so that Jews should stay away from them and not learn their ways.
3) [last line] כף מאזנים KAF MOZNAYIM - a balance scale
4) [last line] כרע הזב KARA HA'ZAV - if the Zav outweighed [the food and drinks]
5) [line 11] כמאן דמחברת K'MAN D'MISBERA - as if it is broken
6) [line 17] קשלפה ושריא KA'SHALFAH V'SHARYA - it is taken apart
7) [line 20] זבוב בעל עקרון ZEVUV BA'AL EKRON - Beelzebub (lord of the flies), the god of the people of Ekron, a Philistine city. The verse that the Gemara cites from Shoftim (8:33; see next entry) does not mention Zevuv Ba'al Ekron. It describes an unfortunate event in the history of the Jews when they accepted various Be'alim (gods) upon themselves after the death of the judge Gid'on. Among the rites that they took upon themselves was to have an image of their god at hand at all times. To this end, they fashioned images that could fit in their pockets. The Gemara reasons that this could be Zevuv Ba'al Ekron, which was the image of a fly. Had the Gemara cited the verse that specifically mentions Zevuv Ba'al Ekron (Melachim II 1:2), it could be argued that the image was a fly larger than a k'Zayis. (TOSFOS DH va'Yasimu)
8) [line 22] "[ויהי כאשר מת גדעון וישובו בני ישראל] ויזנו אחרי הבעלים וישימו להם בעל ברית לאלקים" "[VA'YEHI KA'ASHER MES GID'ON, VA'YASHUVU BNEI YISRAEL VA'YIZNU ACHAREI HA'BE'ALIM,] VA'YASIMU LAHEM BA'AL BRIS L'ELOHIM"- "[And it was when Gid'on died that the Jewish people returned and went astray after idols,] and they appointed for themselves Ba'al Bris as a god." (Shoftim 8:33) (AFTER THE DEATH OF GID'ON)
(a) Despite the great salvation that the people witnessed, they soon forgot HaSh-m and reverted to their old ways.
(b) The idol of which the verse speaks was the size, and in the shape of, a fly, and one who worshipped it would keep in his pocket. Whenever he thought about it, he would produce it and hug and kiss it.
(c) Not only did the people forget HaSh-m, they also quickly forgot the kindnesses that Gid'on did for them. It would not be long before they would join forces with Avimelech, Gid'on's son from a concubine, appointing him their leader and murdering Gid'on's seventy sons that his many real wives had borne him.
9) [line 26] שרץ בכעדשה SHERETZ BEK'ADASHAH (TUM'AS SHERETZ)
A Sheretz (a crawling pest - see Vayikra 11:29-38 for a list of the eight Sheratzim, and Background to Chulin 122:7), even if it or a part of it is only the size of an Adashah (lentil bean), is an Av ha'Tum'ah (Chagigah 11a, Ohalos 1:7). It makes a person or object Tamei at the level of a Rishon l'Tum'ah through Maga (contact), whether the Sheretz was touched willingly or unwillingly. The person who becomes Tamei by touching a Sheretz may not eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash. However, he may immerse immediately in a Mikvah. After nightfall he becomes Tahor and may eat Terumah and Kodshim and enter the Azarah.
10) [line 27] מת בכזית MES B'CHEZAYIS (TUM'AS MES)
(a) A k'Zayis of a Mes (corpse) is an "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah" and is Metamei through Maga (contact), Masa (carrying), and Ohel (being in the same room). An Ohel is defined as a covered space that is at least one Tefach in length, width, and height.
(b) If a person or utensil becomes Tamei by touching a Mes, he must wait seven days to go to the Mikvah. On the third and seventh days, Mei Chatas (ashes of the Parah Adumah mixed in spring water) is sprinkled on the person or utensil. The water is sprinkled by means of three hyssops that have been bound together and dipped into the water. Afterwards, the person or utensil is immersed in a Mikvah to complete the purification process.
11) [line 31] "ויצא את האשרה מבית ה' מחוץ לירושלם אל נחל קדרון וישרף אתה בנחל קדרון וידק לעפר וישלך את עפרה על קבר בני העם" "VA'YOTZEI ES HA'ASHEIRAH MI'BEIS HASH-M MI'CHUTZ LI'YERUSHALAYIM EL NACHAL KIDRON,VA'YISROF OSAH B'NACHAL KIDRON V'YADEK L'AFAR, VA'YASHLECH ES AFARAH AL KEVER BNEI HA'AM"- "And he removed the Asheirah from the House of HaSh-m to outside Yerushalayim, to the Valley of Kidron; he burned it in the Valley of Kidron and ground it to dust. And he scattered its dust over the graves of the [idolatrous] common people." (Melachim II 23:6) (YOSHIYAHU CLEANS UP THE LAND)
(a) After making a covenant to do everything commanded by the Torah, Yoshiyahu, the great Ba'al Teshuvah king, ordered Chilkiyah the Kohen Gadol and the Kohanim to destroy all forms of idolatry from the land, and he put to death all the priests who worshipped them. He ordered all the brothels and the altars that they had set up in the Beis ha'Mikdash to be smashed, and he put to death all those who worshipped on them. Among the idols that he destroyed was the one in the Valley of Hinom, on which the people would burn their children to the abominable Molech. He ordered the horses on which the worshippers of the sun rode to perform their abominations killed, the altar that Yeravam had set up in Beis El demolished, and those that his predecessors Achaz and Menasheh had erected destroyed. He also ordered the killing of the witches and sorcerers that abounded in Yehudah and Yerushalayim, together with all the images connected with them, and the Asheirah cleared out from the House of HaSh-m. He even had the bones of the dead Resha'im who had been guilty of the above sins burned.
(b) Besides the above initiatives, Yoshiyahu disqualified the priests who served on the Bamos from serving in the Beis ha'Mikdash, although he did permit them to partake of the Korbanos that were allotted to the Kohanim.
(c) Having achieved all of that, he ordered the people to bring the Korban Pesach, in the eighteenth year of his reign. The people responded enthusiastically, and the result was that so many people participated in bringing the Pesach that a festival of Pesach like it had not been seen since the days of Shmuel, who, like Yoshiyahu, encouraged Yisrael to do Teshuvah and gathered them all to Mitzpah.
(d) See also Background to Shabbos 56:26.
12) [line 40] "דרך אניה בלב ים" "DERECH ONIYAH V'LEV YAM" - "the way of a ship in the midst of the sea" (Mishlei 30:19) - A ship is compared to the sea in this verse, and the Mishnah (Kelim 17:13) states, "Kol sheba'Yam Tahor" - "Anything in the sea is Tahor" [except for those things mentioned in that Mishnah]. Our Mishnah infers from this verse that a ship is Tahor.
13) [line 42] מיטלטל מלא וריקן MITALTEL MALEI V'REIKAN - it is carried full and empty
14) [line 49] שטוענים אותה ביבשה TO'ANIM OSAH BA'YABASHAH - it is usually loaded on land