BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
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[a - 55 lines; b - 53 lines]
1) [line 2] BATEI - compartments of the head Tefilin
2) [line 5] BAYIS CHITZON SHE'EINO RO'EH AS HA'AVIR, PASUL - if the outer compartment is not exposed to the air, [the Tefilin] are invalid [and therefore if one were to attach a fifth compartment onto the outside of the Tefilin while fulfilling the Mitzvah they would become invalidated]
3) [line 7] BEIS DIN SHEB'YAVNEH - the Sanhedrin that had been in the Lishkas ha'Gazis once they were in Yavneh -- a city along the coast of Eretz Yisrael near present-day Rechovot -- which was the first stop that it made when it went into exile just prior to the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The case is one in which the Sanhedrin went to Yavneh a) after it had ruled against the Zaken Mamrei, but before he then ruled in accordance with his own opinion (RASHI); b) after it had passed the verdict against him (Gemar Din) that he was to receive Chenek (TOSFOS DH v'Lo)
4) [line 9] HA'REGEL (ALIYAH L'REGEL - Visiting the Beis ha'Mikdash on the Festivals)
(a) Every Jewish male must visit the Beis ha'Mikdash three times a year, on the festivals of Pesach, Shevu'os, and Sukos (Shemos 23:17).
(b) Rebbi Akiva rules that the Sanhedrin waits to put a Zaken Mamrei to death until the nearest of these three festivals.
5) [line 10] "V'CHOL HA'AM YISHME'U V'YIRA'U, V'LO YEZIDUN OD." - "And the entire nation shall hear and be afraid, and they will willfully sin no longer" (Devarim 17:13). This verse, which refers to a Zaken Mamrei, implies that the entire nation must be aware of the punishment that he receives. Rebbi Akiva therefore explains that it must take place where and when all of the nation is on hand to witness it.
6) [line 12] EIN ME'ANIN ES DINO (INUY HA'DIN - The Prohibition Against Delaying the Implementation of the Death Penalty)
(a) Once a guilty verdict has been reached in a case of capital punishment, Beis Din may not postpone the punishment; rather, the death penalty must be administered before nightfall (35a). Such a delay would be termed Inuy ha'Din.
(b) Rebbi Akiva maintains that, based on the verse, a Zaken Mamrei is the exception to this rule. Rebbi Yishmael maintains that there is no exception in this case.
7) [line 25] TZERICHIN HACHRAZAH - we must publicize [their sins]
8) [line 25] MESIS - one who attempts to sway another to idol worship
9) [line 25] BEN SORER U'MOREH - A Wayward and Rebellious Son
(a) A Ben Sorer u'Moreh is a boy who has become "wayward and rebellious" (Devarim 21:18-21). The period of time during which he can acquire this Halachic status begins with physical maturity -- Halachically defined as the point at which he has grown two pubic hairs -- until his pubic hair grows in fully (Halachically considered to be three months later). During this time, he must steal money set aside for his father and mother, use it to purchase fifty Dinars worth of meat, and consume it rare. He must also purchase one half-Log (5 oz.) of especially fine wine and drink it with his meal. The consumption must take place outside of his father's property, and in bad company.
(b) One who has met the necessary conditions of a Ben Sorer u'Moreh is punished with Sekilah (stoning; see Background to 73:20:a:1). Rebbi Yosi ha'Gelili explains why this punishment is just, even though it is seemingly disproportionate to the crime. Hash-m has determined that since he is consumed with experiencing worldly pleasures to the exclusion of all else, he will eventually deplete all of his father's possessions in this pursuit. Left with no means of continuing his chosen path in life, he will stand at a crossroads and murder people in order to steal from them. Better that he die young with relatively few sins than die after a long and wicked life (Mishnah, Sanhedrin 72a).
(c) The Gemara (68b-72a) derives many additional details necessary for a young man to be considered a Ben Sorer u'Moreh. According to one opinion, these are so numerous and unlikely that the case of a Ben Sorer u'Moreh never occurred, nor will it ever (Sanhedrin 71).
10) [line 26] EDIM ZOMEMIN - Plotting Witnesses
(a) If different sets of at least two witnesses each contradict each other, their testimony is termed "Edus Mukcheshes", and Beis Din takes no action based upon either claim. If, however, one set of witnesses discredit the testimony of another set by claiming that they were instead with them, elsewhere, when they claimed to have witnessed the crime, then the discredited witnesses are termed "Edim Zomemim". The Torah decrees that under such circumstances the second set of witnesses are believed. As a general rule, Edim Zomemim are punished with whatever punishment they attempted to visit upon he whom they testified against (Devarim 19:16-21; see Mishnah, Makos 5a).
(b) Edim Zomemim receive that which they attempted to inflict upon another only when the second set of witnesses arrive after the first verdict was pronounced but before it was actually visited upon the litigant. If the second set of witnesses arrive before the verdict is pronounced, then the first set of witnesses are merely discounted. If they arrive after the verdict is pronounced, then the first set do not receive the punishment that they inflicted upon their victim. This is because the verse describes their punishment with the word "Ka'asher Zamam" - as they plotted to do -- and not what they actually accomplished.
11) [line 27] "V'CHOL HA'AM ..." - see above, entry #5
12a) [line 27] "V'CHOL YISRAEL YISHME'U V'YIRA'UN, [V'LO YOSIFU LA'ASOS KA'DAVAR HA'RA HA'ZEH B'KIRBECHA.]" - "And all of Yisrael shall hear and be afraid, [and they will no longer perform actions like this evil thing in your midst]" (Devarim 13:12). This verse refers to a Mesis.
b) [line 27] "[UR'GAMUHU KOL ANSHEI IRO VA'AVANIM VA'MES U'VI'ARTA HA'RA MI'KIRBECHA,] V'CHOL YISRAEL YISHME'U V'YIRA'U." - "[And all the men of his city shall stone him with stones and you shall eradicate the evil from your midst,] and all of Yisrael shall hear and be afraid" (Devarim 21:21). This verse refers to a Ben Sorer u'Moreh.
13) [line 28] "VEHA'NISH'ARIM YISHME'U V'YIRA'UN, [V'LO YOSIFU LA'ASOS OD KA'DAVAR HA'RA HA'ZEH B'KIRBECHA.]" - "And hose who remain shall hear and be afraid, [and they will no longer continue to perform actions like this evil thing in your midst]" (Devarim 19:20). This verse refers to Edim Zomemin.
14) [line 28] LO KULEI ALMA CHAZU L'SAHADUSA - not everybody is fit to testify (as thieves, usurers, and others are invalid witnesses; Mishnah 24b) (see Insights)
15) [line 28] NAVI HA'SHEKER ... HA'MISNABEI B'SHEM AVODAS KOCHAVIM ... HA'BA AL ESHES ISH ... ZOMEMEI BAS KOHEN U'VO'ALAH - a false prophet ... one who prophesizes in the name of an idol ... one who commits adultery ... witnesses who falsely testified against the daughter of a Kohen and her supposed adulterer. These are quotes from the list of Nechnakin in the first Mishnah of our Perek (84b). They are quoted here in order to further elucidate the scenarios in which one who transgresses these sins is liable to receive Chenek.
16) [line 29] MAH SHE'LO NE'EMAR LO - that which was not said to him [but rather to a different Navi]
17) [line 29] HA'KOVESH - one who suppresses
18) [line 30] HA'MEVATER AL DIVREI NAVI - one who declines to follow the instructions of a Navi [that were directed to him through a prophecy]
19) [line 31] "[V'HAYAH HA'ISH ASHER LO YISHMA EL DEVARAI ASHER YEDABER BI'SHMI --] ANOCHI EDROSH ME'IMO." - "[And it will be that the man who will not listen to My words who will speak in My name --] I will seek [vengeance] from him" (Devarim 18:19).
20) [line 32] KIVEN - directed [correctly]
21) [line 33] NISUIN (ERUSIN V'NISU'IN - Betrothal and Marriage)
(a) The first stage of Halachic marriage is called Kidushin (betrothal). Kidushin can be accomplished in one of three ways:
1. Kesef - A man can be Mekadesh a woman through giving her money or anything equal in value to a Perutah (a very small coin). Upon doing so, he must proclaim, "Harei At Mekudeshes Li b'(-----) Zu" - "Behold you are betrothed to me through this (-----)".
2. Shtar - A man can be Mekadesh a woman through giving her a marriage document. This may be written upon any surface, and need not be of any specific value. The words "Harei At Mekudeshes Li bi'Shtar Zeh" must be written upon the Shtar.
3. Bi'ah - A man can be Mekadesh a woman through having relations with her. At that time, he must proclaim, "Harei At Mekudeshes Li b'Bi'ah Zu". Because Kidushin requires witnesses, the Chachamim strongly condemned anyone who uses this method of Kidushin.
(b) The Torah refers to this stage of marriage as "Erusin" (Devarim 22:23). The term "Kidushin" is used by the Rabanan in order to connote that just as everyone is prohibited to benefit from Hekdesh (an object sanctified to the service of Hash-m), through Kidushin a woman becomes prohibited to everyone in the world save her husband (Kidushin 2b; see also Tosfos 7a DH v'Nifshetu). Although a man and women are married after Kidushin, they may not yet live together as man and wife.
(c) The second stage of Halachic marriage - the completion of the marriage - is termed "Nisu'in". This is accomplished through Chupah. Chupah is never clearly described in the Gemara, and various opinion are offered by the Rishonim as to what exactly it entails (see Insights to Kesuvos 57:1). The general idea of Chupah is that the groom brings his wife into his house. After the Chupah is performed, the marriage is complete.
(d) Our Mishnah discusses a case in which a betrothed woman's father delivered her into the care of her husband's agents. At that point, she gained the status of a Nesu'ah.
22) [line 37] "ACH HA'NAVI ASHER YAZID L'DABER DAVAR BI'SHMI ES ASHER LO TZIVISIV L'DABER, VA'ASHER YEDABER B'SHEM ELOHIM ACHERIM -- U'MES HA'NAVI HA'HU." - "However, the Navi who intentionally relates a matter in My name that I did not command him to relate, and one who speaks in the name of other gods -- that prophet shall die" (Devarim 18:20).
23) [line 41] "V['HAYAH] HA'ISH ASHER LO YISHMA ..." - see above, entry #19. The simple understanding of this verse is that it refers to one who does not listen to a Navi regarding a prophecy that concerns him.
24a) [line 41] KARI BEI "LO YASHMI'A" - read [the verse] to [also] mean "[And it will be that the man who] will not cause [My words] to be heard ..."
b) [line 41] V'KARI BEI "LO YISHAMA" - and read [the verse] to [also] mean "[And it will be that the man who] will not listen to [My words] that he himself relates ..."
25) [line 42] TZIDKIYAH BEN KENA'ANAH (The Downfall of the Wicked King Achav)
(a) Achav, wicked king of the ten tribes of Yisrael, greatly desired the vineyard of his relative Navos ha'Yizre'eli. His wicked queen Izevel devised a sinister plot through which Navos was executed and Achav inherited his vineyard. Hash-m held Achav responsible for the murder, and He notified Achav through Eliyahu ha'Navi that "where the dogs licked the blood of Navos shall the dogs lick your blood" (Melachim I 21:19). The time had arrived for Divine retribution to be meted out upon Achav for this and his many other sins (ibid. Chapter 21).
(b) Achav's advisors advocated going to war with Aram. The king's false prophets, including Tzidkiyah ben Kena'anah, predicted Achav's victory. Concurrently, the true prophet Michaihu beheld a vision in which the spirit of Navos offered to entice Achav into the battle that would lead to his doom. It was this spirit who was responsible for the false prophecies of victory.
(c) Achav took the advice of his false prophets and went to war against Aram, where he alone was slain in battle. Although he was later buried, much of his blood was indeed lapped by dogs in the very place where Navos had been executed.
26) [line 42] "VA'YA'AS LO TZIDKIYAH BEN KENA'ANAH KARNEI BARZEL ..." - "And Tzidkiyah the son of Kena'anah fashioned for himself horns of iron, [and he said, 'Thus says Hash-m, 'With these shall you gore Aram until you have consumed them'']" (Melachim I 22:11).
27) [line 43] MAI HAVEI LEI L'ME'EVAD? RU'CH NAVOS AT'ISEI! - what should he have done? The spirit of Navos misled him!
28) [line 43] YEFATEH - will entice
29) [line 45] TZEI MI'MACHATZISI [SHE'NE'EMAR, "... DOVER SHEKARIM LO YIKON L'NEGED EINAI."] - go out of My presence (lit. partition) [as it says, "... it is improper for one who speaks falsehood to sit before Me" (Tehilim 101:7).]" The verse is added by the MAHARSHAL, and is found in manuscripts as well.
30) [line 45] HAVAH LEI L'MEIDAK - (the Gemara answers) [Tzidkiyah ben Kena'anah] ought to have checked [whether or not the prophecy was real]
31) [line 46] SIGNON ECHAD OLEH L'CHAMAH NEVI'IM, V'EIN SHNEI NEVI'IM MISNAB'IN B'SIGNON ECHAD - one [Divine] inspiration reaches many prophets, but no two prophets prophesize with the same language
32) [line 47] "ZEDON LIBCHA HISHI'ECHA ..." - "The willingness of your heart to sin swayed you ..." (Ovadyah 1:3). This verse refers to the nation Edom.
33) [line 47] "TIFLATZTECHA HISHI OSACH ZEDON LIBECHA ..." - "Your intimidation of others swayed you [to carry out] the willingness of your heart to sin ..." (Yirmeyah 49:16). The rest of this verse, which also refers to Edom, is extremely similar to the remainder of the previously quoted verse from Ovadyah.
34) [line 47] HANEI - these [false prophets]
35) [line 48] YEHOSHAFAT - a righteous ruler who reigned for twenty-five years; the fourth king of Yehudah
36) [line 49] AVI ABA - my ancestor; presumably, this refers to King David
37) [line 51] CHANANYAH BEN AZOR - a contemporary of the prophet Yirmeyah, this once-true prophet became a false prophet. He claimed that Klal Yisrael did need not to worry about Nevuchadnetzar and that Hash-m would destroy him, while Yirmeyah prophesized that just the opposite was true.
38) [line 51] "KOH AMAR HASH-M TZEVAKOS, 'HINENI SHOVER ES KESHES EILAM ...'" - "Thus says Hash-m, Master of Legions, 'Behold I shall break the bow of Eilam ..." (Yirmeyah 49:35). The nation of Eilam assisted the Kasdim (see below, entry #40) in their persecution of Klal Yisrael.
39) [line 51] NASA CHANAYAH KAL VA'CHOMER L'ATZMO (KAL VA'CHOMER - An A Fortiori Argument)
(a) In a Beraisa found in the introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash on Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists the thirteen methodologies employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of these is Kal va'Chomer. This is a logical argument in which proof of a law is shown by means of an already proven stronger law. A Kal va'Chomer can be applied to permit (i.e., something must be permitted since that which is more likely to be forbidden is already permitted) as well as to forbid (i.e., something must be forbidden since that which is more likely to be permitted is already forbidden).
40) [line 52] KASDIM - the nation of Nevuchadnetzar, who dwelled in Bavel
41) [last line] NEVI'EI HA'BA'AL (Eliyahu and the Prophets of Ba'al)
(a) In the times of King Achav, a wicked idol-worshipper, the nation turned to worshipping the Avodah Zarah of Ba'al. Eliyahu ha'Navi decreed a famine in the land in retaliation for this desertion of Hash-m. Achav then scornfully referred to Eliyahu as "Ocher Yisrael" -- the destroyer of Yisrael. In response, Eliyahu suggested a confrontation with eight hundred and fifty "prophets" of Ba'al on Mount Carmel. All of Yisrael was invited to witness the event, at which Eliyahu intended to demonstrate that Hash-m was the true and only G-d.
(b) Eliyahu challenged Yisrael to decide between the worship of Hash-m or that of Ba'al. He then invited the prophets of Ba'al to choose one of two bulls, leaving him with the other. Both parties were to prepare an altar and firewood, upon which they would place their slaughtered and quartered bull as an offering. Each party would then beseech his deity to send fire from Heaven to consume the animal. Whomever responded would prove Himself to be the true G-d.
(c) Eliyahu taunted the prophets of Ba'al for most of the day as they ranted and raved, pranced upon their altar, and even maimed themselves in their frenzied attempt to arouse their god. In the afternoon, Eliyahu called upon Yisrael to carefully observe. He rebuilt a Mizbe'ach that had been used by Shaul ha'Melech, and dug a trench around it. He then ordered four large jugs of water to be poured over his bull and the wood atop the altar. The water flowed into the ditch, filling it.
(d) The preparations were completed at Minchah time. Eliyahu beseeched Hash-m to answer his prayers and demonstrate His omnipotence. As he finished his prayer, a G-dly fire descended and consumed the Olah, the wood, the stones, and the dirt, as well as the water in the trench. The assemblage was so moved that they cried in unison, "Hash-m -- He is the true G-d! Hash-m -- He is the true G-d"! (Melachim I 18)
42) [last line] YONAH BEN AMITAI - The great city of Ninvei Repents
(a) The prophet Yonah was instructed by Hash-m to inform the great city of Ninvei that, due to their numerous sins, the city would be overturned in three days' time. The residents of the city took the warning to heart, "[And the men and animals covered themselves in sackcloth, and vigorously called out to Hash-m; and each man repented from his evil ways] and from the robbery that was in their palms" (Yonah 3:8). Additionally, they organized a public fast wherein men, women, children, and even animals neither ate nor drank. Hash-m saw that they repented truly, and decided not to carry out His dire warning.
43) [line 1] CHAVREI D'MICHAH - the colleague of the prophet Michah (also known as Michaihu) (see next entry)
44) [line 1] "V'ISH ECHAD MI'BNEI NEVI'IM ..." (The Downfall of Achav)
(a) Ben Hadad, king of Aram, attacked the Shomron. He demanded great tribute from Achav, king of Yisrael. Achav agreed to pacify Ben Hadad. Ben Hadad then demanded that he be given Sifrei Torah as well. After conferring with the elders, Achav refused this request. Subsequently, Achav emerged victorious over ban Hadad and Aram in the battlefield.
(b) Eliyahu ha'Navi received a prophecy that he was to instruct Achav to kill Ben Hadad now that he was in his custody. Achav ignored this directive and allowed Ben Hadad to return home in peace.
(c) "And a man from the apprentice prophets related a prophecy to his fellow, saying, 'Please strike me', and the man refused to strike him. And he said to him, 'Since you have not listened to the voice of Hash-m, you will now go forth from me and a lion will attack you'; and he went from beside him and a lion found him and attacked him" (Melachim I 20:35-36)". Through this prophecy, Michah demonstrated what was to happen to Achav. Since he had been instructed to kill Ban Hadad and he had not, Achav too was destined to die (see above, entry #25).
45) [line 5] IDO HA'NAVI (Ido ha'Navi and the Mizbe'ach of Yerav'am)
(a) When the ten Shevatim other than Yehudah and Binyamin split from the kingdom of Rechav'am, grandson of Shlomo, they appointed the (then) righteous Yerav'am ben Nevat as their king. He did not wish to appear inferior to his counterpart during the festival pilgrimage to the Beis ha'Mikdash. This would happen, he feared, when his subjects saw that he stood along with everyone else in the Azarah (courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash), while Rechav'am was able to sit. Only a king of Yehudah is permitted to sit in the Azarah. Yerav'am therefore appointed sentries to prevent his subjects from fulfilling the Mitzvah of visiting Yerushalayim during the festivals, lest they return to the kingdom of Yehudah.
(b) To compensate them, Yerav'am erected two golden calves -- one in the southern town of Beis El and one in the northern town of Dan -- before which he instructed his subjects to offer sacrifices. He appointed priests to serve these idols who were not from the tribe of Levi. In addition, he concocted a new festival that was to fall on the fifteenth of Cheshvan.
(c) On this festival, Yerav'am himself ascended the altar in Beis El and was about to offer Ketores (incense) to the calf. At that moment Ido ha'Navi arrived from Yehudah, prophesizing that a descendant of King David by the name of Yoshiyahu would in the future slaughter the priests of the calves upon their alters.
(d) Ido was instructed by Hash-m not to eat or drink when he was in Beis El, nor to return upon the same path that he had arrived upon. Ido for this reason had refused an invitation to dine with Yerav'am. As the verses cited by our Gemara go on to detail, however, things afterward did not go according to plan (Melachim I 13).
46) [line 5] "KI CHEN TZIVAH OSI ..." - "For so He commanded me through the word of Hash-m, saying, 'Do not eat bread and do not drink water and do not return upon the path that you arrived upon" (Melachim I 13:9). This was the response given by Ido ha'Navi when another invited him for a meal.
47) [line 7] "VA'YOMER LO, 'GAM ANI NAVI KAMOCHA ...'" - "And he said to him, 'I too am a prophet like yourself and an angel spoke to me with the word of Hash-m saying, 'Sit him down with you in your house and eat bread and drink water'' -- he lied to him" (Melachim I 13:18). The man who claimed to be a prophet was not so -- the author of Melachim informs us that he had received no such vision.
48) [line 7] "VA'YASHAV ITO ..." - "And he returned with him, and he ate bread in his house and he drank water" (Melachim I 13:19).
49) [line 7] "VA'YELECH, VA'YIMTZA'EHU ARYEH ..." - "And he went, and a lion found him on the path and it killed him ..." (Melachim I 13:24).
50) [line 9] LOKEH - he receives lashes [until he dies for his failure to fulfill a positive Mitzvah] (TOSFOS to 89a DH ha'Kovesh; see bottom of Kesuvos 86a)
51a) [line 9] MAN D'ACHIL TAMREI B'ARBELA LAKI? - shall he who eats dates out of a sifter [then] receive lashes [as well]?
b) [line 10] MAN MASRI BEI? - who [knew that he had a prophecy to suppress who] gave him warning?
52) [line 11] CHAVREI NEVI'EI - his fellow prophets
53) [line 12] "KI LO YA'ASEH HASH-M ELOKIM DAVAR KI IM GALAH SODO [EL AVADAV HA'NEVI'IM.]" - "For Hash-m Elokim does not do anything without first revealing his secret [to his servants the prophets]" (Amos 3:7). This verse implies that all prophets receive the vision that one of them is intended to relay.
54) [line 13] DILMA HADREI BEI - perhaps [the heavenly host] changed their mind [and the warning is therefore uncertain (Hasra'as Safek), in which case one cannot be punished even after having received it]
55) [line 15] LO OD'UHU - they did not inform him. This is evident from that which Yonah remained camped outside of Ninvei to see what would happen to the city (ARUCH LA'NER).
56a) [line 15] ME'IKARA, "NINVEH NEHEPECHES" AMREI LEI - originally, they told [Yonah] that "[in thirty days] Ninvei will be overturned"
b) [line 16] IHU LO YADA IY L'TOVAH IY L'RA'AH - [it was Yonah] who did not know whether it would be for the good (i.e., through repentance) or for the bad (i.e., through Divine punishment for their sins a.k.a. Sedom and Amorah)
57) [line 18] MENA YADA D'I'ANESH? - how is one to know [that the Navi is a true prophet] such that he deserves a punishment [for not listening to him]?
58) [line 19] HEICHA D'MUCHGZAK, SHAINI - where the Navi is established [as righteous and a true prophet], it is different (see Insights)
59) [line 21] HEICHI SHAMA LEI YITZCHAK? - how did Yitzchak listen [to him when he told him that they were on their way to sacrifice Yitzchak to Hash-m, which would have been forbidden if not for that which Hash-m expressly commanded it]?
60) [line 21] ELIYAHU B'HAR HA'KARMEL - see above, entry #41
61) [line 22] SHECHUTEI CHUTZ - Slaughtering a Sanctified Animal Outside of the Beis Ha'Mikdash
(a) All sanctified animals fit to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach must be offered as Korbanos (Vayikra 17:1-7). Aside from this positive Mitzvah, one is prohibited from slaughtering such animals outside of the Azarah (courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). Animals slaughtered outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash are termed "Shechutei Chutz". One who willfully ignores this prohibition is liable to receive Kares (see Background to Gitin 55:42).
62) [line 23] "VAYHI ACHAR HA'DEVARIM HA'ELEH ..." - "And it was after these things, and G-d tested Avraham; and He said to him, 'Avraham!' and he responded, 'Here I am'" (Bereishis 22:1). The Torah begins the epic story of Akeidas Yitzchak with this verse.
63) [line 26] VA'YIGDAL HA'YELED VA'YIGAMAL ..." - "And the child grew and he was weaned, and Avraham made a great feast on the day that Yitzchak was weaned" (Bereishis 21:8).
64) [line 28] CHANANTO L'ME'AH SHANAH PRI VATEN - you graced him with a child at one hundred years [of age]
65a) [line 30] TOR - a turtledove
b) [line 30] GOZAL - a squab (young pigeon)
66) [line 31] KLUM ASAH ELA BI'SHVIL BENO? - did he not make [the feast] only due to [his joy over] his son?
67) [line 32] ZEVACH - sacrifice
68) [line 33] "VA'YOMER, 'KACH NA ES BINCHA, ES YECHIDCHA, ASHER AHAVTA -- ES YITZCHAK ..." - "And He said, 'Please take your son, your only one, whom you love -- Yitzchak [and go to the land of Moriyah, and offer him there as a complete sacrifice ...]" (Bereishis 22:2)
69) [line 36] NITZCHAN - he was victorious over them
70) [line 36] L'YAMIM - some time later
71) [line 40] SHNEI BANIM YESH LI! - (Avraham Avinu responded) I have two sons!
72) [line 41] TARVAIHU RECHIMNA LEHU! - I love them both!
73) [line 41] V'CHOL KACH LAMAH? - and why was all of this [dragging out of the revelation of which son Hash-m was referring to] necessary?
74) [line 41] KEDEI SHE'LO TITAREF DAITO ALAV - so as not to addle his thoughts; i.e., to break the news gently such that Avraham would be able to handle it
75) [line 42] "HANISA DAVAR ELECHA SIL'EH? [VATZOR B'MILIN MI YUCHAL?] HINEI YISARTA RABIM, V'YADAYIM RAFOS TECHAZEK. KOSHEL YEKIMUN MILECHA, [U'VIRKAYIM KOR'OS TE'AMETZ]. KI ATAH TAVO ELECHA VA'TELEH, [TIGA ADECHA VA'TIBAHEL]?" - "When a matter tests you, will you become weary? [And who would be able to remain silent in such a case?] Behold you have reproached the public, and you have strengthened weak hands. You words have raised those who stumbled, [and you have fortified shaky knees]. Now when [tribulations] come upon you shall you become weary, [and when difficulties encounter you shall you become confused]?" (Iyov 4:2-5). These verses record the words of Elifaz ben Esav, one of the three friends of Iyov. He reacted in this way when Iyov questioned the justice of Hash-m after being visited by dreadful trials and tribulations. Our Gemara puts these words in the mouth of the Satan speaking to Avraham, and interprets these words to mean "Would One who truly loved you test you in a way that would make you weary? You have worked so hard in bringing the masses close to Hash-m; now will you allow Him to confuse you message?" Since Avraham had argued against human sacrifice, the Satan argued that by carrying through with the Akeidah he would ruin his life's work.
76) [line 43] "[VA']ANI B'SUMI ELECH ..." - "[And] I will go in simple [faith] ..." (Tehilim 26:11).
77) [line 43] "HALO YIR'ASCHA KISLASECHA ..." - "Your fear [of Heaven] is your foolishness ..." (Iyov 4:6). Elifav argued that if Iyov could question G-d due to the tribulations that arrived, then his fear of Hash-m had been that of a fool. The Satan maintained that Avraham was a fool to place such unquestioning trust in Hash-m.
78) [line 44] "ZECHOR, NA, MI HU NAKI AVAD ..." - "Recall, if you will, an innocent one who was lost ..." (Iyov 4:7). Elifav argued that if Iyov was suffering, then he must have deserved it. Avraham maintained that Hash-m always acts justly.
79) [line 44] CHAZA - [the Satan] saw
80) [line 44] "V'EILAI DAVAR YEGUNAV ..." - "And a stolen word made its way to me ..." (Iyov 4:12).
81) [line 45] ME'ACHOREI HA'PARGOD - from behind the Heavenly curtain that divides the presence of Hash-m from the Heavenly Host (RASHI to Bava Metzia 59a)
82) [line 45] BADA'I - a fraud
83) [line 47] ATAH MALTA BEN SHEMONAS YAMIM - you were circumcised at the age of eight days old
84) [line 47] UV'EVER ECHAD ATAH MEGAREH BI? - and due to [your willingness to suffer pain in] one limb [for Hash-m] you attempt to provoke me?
85) [line 48] NAVI SHE'HIDI'ACH - a prophet who attempted to sway the masses to idol worship [by claiming that Hash-m instructed him to say so]
86) [line 49] MADICHEI IR HA'NIDACHAS - A City that has Strayed to Idol Worship
(a) If an entire city has strayed (Nidach) to the extent that most of its inhabitants practice idolatry, it must be eradicated. All those who worshipped idols are put to death by the sword, while the buildings of the city are razed and its possessions burned (Devarim 13:13-19). Those righteous individuals who did not sin are allowed to remain alive, but they must leave the city bereft of all possessions.
(b) The Machlokes cited in our Gemara concerns the punishment deserved by he who convinced the inhabitants of an Ir ha'Nidachas to worship Avodah Zarah.
87) [line 49] ASYA "HADACHAH" "HADACHAH" MI'MESIS (GEZEIRAH SHAVAH - A Derivation Equating Two Subjects Utilizing a Common Word or Phrase)
(a) In a Beraisa found in the introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash on Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists the thirteen methodologies employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of these is Gezeirah Shavah, in which two identical words (or two words that share the same root) that appear in two different sections of the Torah reveal that the Halachos applicable to one section apply to the other and vice versa.
(b) One may apply a Gezeirah Shavah only if he has received a tradition from his teachers that such a connection between the two words exists. Once the connection is established, however, then one may derive Halachos that were not specified in the tradition.
(c) A Gezeirah Shavah is unlimited; one may not pick and choose which Halachos he would like to apply. This facet of a Gezeirah Shavah is termed "Ein Gezeirah Shavah l'Mechetzah". This rule is waived in the case of an explicit teaching that precludes the application of a specific Halachah.
(d) There are three possible configurations of a Gezeirah Shavah:
1. MUFNEH MI'SHNEI TZEDADIM - If both words are seemingly unnecessary and are not used in the derivation of any other teaching, then all of the rules described above apply.
2. MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If the word in only one of the sections is available, some maintain that Halachos may be derived from such a Gezeirah Shavah only if there is no argument against comparing the two sections. This status is known as "Lemedin u'Meshivin". Others rule that such a Gezeirah Shavah is no more limited than one that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim.
3. EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If neither word is free, then those who maintain that a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Tzad Echad is unlimited grant such a Gezeirah Shavah the status of Lemedin u'Meshivin. Those who applied the status of Lemedin u'Meshivin to a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim rule that this one may not be used to determine any Halachos whatsoever.
(e) Regarding a Navi she'Hidi'ach the Torah states, "... l'Hadichacha Min ha'Derech ..." - "[for he spoke words of rebellion against Hash-m ...] to sway you from the path [that Hash-m you G-d has commanded you ...]" (Devarim 13:6). Regarding a Mesis the Torah states, "... Ki Vikesh l'Hadichacha ..." - "[And you shall stone him with stones and he shall die] since he attempted to sway you [from Hash-m your G-d ...] (Devarim 13:11).
88) [line 50] "MISAH" KESIVA BEI - the Torah writes "death" regarding him (see previous entry, (e))
89) [line 52] V'LIGMAR MI'MESIS? - why do we not learn [that he receives Sekilah through a Gezeirah Shavah] from Mesis?
90) [last line] HEDYOT - a commoner; in this context, one who is not a Navi
Index to Background for Maseches Sanhedrin