ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) The Mishnah rules in a case where ...
1. ... Beis-Din and all of Yisrael saw the new moon - that unless Beis-Din manage to declare Rosg Chodesh before nightfall of the thirty-first, they are obligated to declare the thirty-first Rosh Chodesh. And the same applies in a case where ...
2. ... the witnesses were cross-examined on the eve of the thirtieth, but Beis-Din did not manage to declare 'Mekudash' before nightfall, or before nightfall of the thirty-first.
(b) We might otherwise have thought that one can still fix the thirtieth as Rosh Chodesh (retroactively) - in that the cross-examination of the witnesses is considered T'chilas Din and the declaration G'mar Din (which on principle, is valid at night-time), in which case they would be able to declare the thirtieth Rosh Chodesh.
(c) If they saw the new moon on the eve of the thirtieth and there is time to examine the witnesses before nightfall (Tzeis-ha'Kochavim) - then they should go ahead and do so ...
(d) ... because it is not considered night until Tzeis-ha'Kochavim (See Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'ad she'Chasheichah').
(a) The Mishnah rules that if only the Beis-Din ha'Gadol saw the new moon ...
1. ... on the night of the thirtieth - then the next day, two of them stand before the remaining Dayanim, and they declare yje tjirtieth Rosh Chodesh.
2. ... on the day of the thirtieth - they declare the thirtieth Rosh Chodesh on the spot, and the same will apply if they saw it ...
3. ... during Sheki'as ha'Chamah of the thirtieth ...
(b) ... based on the principle that 'she'Lo T'hei Shemi'ah Gedolah me'Re'iyah' (hearing cannot be better than seeing.
(c) Beis-Din can, on the other hand, to declare Rosh Chodesh without the testimony of witnesses - since there is no Pasuk that requires testimony, unless it is necessary.
(d) In a case where a Beis-Din of three experts saw the new moon at night-time - the Tana requires two of them to testify before the third one together with two other Dayanim.
(e) Even though the third Dayan is an expert, two of them cannot simply testify before him (like we find by cases that do not involve Misah or Malkos) - because one Dayan (even if he is a Yachid Mumcheh) is not eligible by Kidush ha'Chodesh ...
(f) ... as we find in Parshas Bo,where Hash-m told Moshe Rabeinu that he and Aharon should sanctify the month (and since two Dayanim can never form a Beis-Din they would have to add a third Dayan).
(a) The only horn listed by the Tana Kama that is not eligible to be used as a Shofar on Rosh Ha'Shanah is - that of a cow (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) We learn this from the Pasuk in ve'Zos ha'B'rachah "B'chor Shoro Hadar lo. ve'Karnei Re'eim Karnav" - which indicates that the horn of the cow family is called a 'Keren'.
(c) We learn from the Pasuk (in B'har, in connection with the Yovel year) "Veha'avarta Shofar Teru'ah" - that the Shofar that is blown to herald the Yovel year must be called a Shofar ...
(d) ... and we learn Rosh Ha'Shanah from Yovel with a Hekesh.
(a) Rebbi Yossi queries the Tana Kama from the Pasuk in Yehoshua "bi'Meshoch be'*Keren ha'Yovel*" (See Tos. Yom-Tov) - which means 'a ram's horn'.
(b) Rebbi Yossi now asks on the Tana Kama - that we see from here that all horns are called 'Keren'.
(c) To which the Tana Kama answers - that perhapd they are, but they are also called Shofar, whereas that of a cow is not.
(a) According to the Mishnah, the Mitzvah of Shofar comprises - that of a Ya'el (a mountain-goat [See Tos. Yom-Tov]), which is straight ...
(b) ... because the order of the day is Tefilah, which must be straight (uncomplicated [See Tos. Yom-Tov]).
(c) The two trumpets that they blew simultaneously in the Beis-ha'Mikdash -flanked the Shofar (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(d) They overlaid its mouthpiece of the Shofar that they blew in the Beis-ha'Mikdash- with gold.
(a) In contrast, on Ta'aniyos - public fast-days which the Chachamim wouls institute when the community was beset with Tzaros (See Toc. Yom-Tov).
(b) ... they would blow on two bent (See Tos.Yom-Tov) Shofros of 'Z'charim' - (ram's horns) ...
(c) ... which were overlaid with - silver (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(d) This time, the trumpets which they also blew, were placed - in the middle.
(e) The Shofar blew longer on Rosh Ha'Shanah and the trumpets on Ta'aniyos - as a Si'man as to which day it was (Rosh Ha'Shanah or a Ta'anis [See Tos. Yom-Tov in previous Mishnah DH Shofar...']).
(a) We learn that one blows trumpets at a time of Tzarah - from the Pasuk in Beha'aloscha "al ha'Tzar ha'Tzorer eschem Vahare'osem ba'Chatzatzros".
(b) And from the Pasuk in Tehilim "ba'Chatzotzros ve'Kol Shofar Hari'u Lif'nei ha'Melech Hash-m", we learn - that it is only in the Beis-ha'Mikdash ("Lifnei ha'Melech Hash-m") that one blows both trumpets and Shofros. Elsewhere, at a time that one blows the one, one does not blow the other.
(a) One blow Shofar on Yom Kipur - of the Yovel year ...
(b) ... as a signal to set free all Jewish servants and return property that one purchased to its original owner.
(c) What the Tana Kama means when he says that Yovel is like Rosh ha'Shanah with regard to ...
1. ... Teki'ah (See Tiferes Yisrael), he means - that one blows on the Yom Kipur of Yovel the horn of mountain-goat and the same number of Teki'os as on Rosh ha'Shanah each year.
2. ... B'rachah, he means - that one recites 'Malchiyos, Zichronos and Shofros in Tefilah, just as one does on Rosh ha'Shanah each year.
(d) We learn the former ruling - from the Gezeirah-Shavah "(ba'Chodesh) ha'Shevi'i" "ha'Shevi'i" (which teaches that all the blowings of the seventh month require the same specifications.
(a) According to Rebbi Yehudah however, although on Yom Kipur of Yovel one bows on the horn of a mountain-goat, on Rosh ha'Shanah one blows on a ram's horn (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) The Halachah however is - that on both Rosh ha'Shanah and on Yom Kipur of the Yovel one blows on a ram's horn.
(a) The Mishnah declares that a split Shofar that has been stuck together with glue (See Tos. Yom-Tov) - Pasul ...
(b) ... because it is like two Shofros (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) The Tana is speaking about a Shofar that split lengthwise. If it split breadth-wise - it is Kasher provided from the mouthpiece to the split is a Shi'ur Teki'ah ...
(d) ... sufficiently long to hold in one's hand and for for it to still be seen protruding from one's hand at both ends (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) The Tana declares a Shofar ...
1. ... that is made with broken pieces of Shofar that have been stuck together - Pasul (See Tiferes Yisrael).
2. ... with a hole that one stopped up Kasher - provided it does hinder the sound.
(b) For the Shofar to be Kashe, besides the fact that the majority of the Shofar must be intact, it also requires the hole to be stopped up with the same species as the Shofar itself.
(a) The Mishnah discusses someone who blows Shofar into a pit ...
1. ... a 'Dus' - (an enclosure) or ...
2. ... a 'Pitas' - (a large earthenware vessel).
(b) The Mishnah rules that someone who does that - is Yotzei as long as he hears the actual sound of the Shofar, but not if he merely hears the echo.
(c) He is always Yotzei however - if he is actually standing inside the pit or the enclosure (and presumably, even if he just sticks his head into it).
(a) And the Tana 'similarly' (See Tos-Yom-Tov and Tiferes Yisrael) rules that someone who is passing behind a Shul just as they are ...
1. ... blowing the Shofar - he is Yotzei the Mitzvah provided he had Kavanah to be Yotzei, but not if he did not, and the same applies to ...
2. ... reading the Megilah (although it is not clear why, seeing as we rule that Mitzvos de'Rabbanan do not require Kavanah to be Yotzei).
(b) The Din differ with regard to a private person who is blowing the Shofar for his family - inasmuch as a person passing the house will not be Yotzei even if he does have Kavanah to be Yotzei ...
(c) ... seeing as the person who is blowing only has in mind the people whom he sees, unlike the Ba'al Toke'a in Shul, who blows for whoever hears him, irrespective of whether he sees him or not.
(d) The Tana concludes with 'even though they both heard, this one had Kavanah and the other one didn't' (See Meleches Sh'lomoh).
(a) The problem the Mishnah has with the Pasuk in ...
1. ... Beshalach (in connection with the battle against Amalek) "Vehayah ka'asher Yarim Moshe es Yadav, v'Gavar Yisrael is - the connection between Moshe's hands and victory or defeat.
2. ... Beha'aloscha (in connection with the people who spoke Lashon ha'Ra about the Manna) "Asei Lecha Saraf v'Sim Oso Al Neis; Vehayah Kol ha'Nashuch Vera'ah Oso Vachai" is - the connection between a copper snake and life and death.
(b) The Tana answers - that it was indeed neither did victory and defeat lie in Moshe's hands nor did life and death lie in the hands of the copper snake, but the fact that they looked upwards towards Hash-m and rendered their hearts subservient to Him that achieved victory in the one case and life on the other (See Tos. Yom-Tov)!
(c) The connection between this Mishnah and the previous one is - the fact that both teach us the advantage of someone who has Kavanas ha'Leiv over someone who doesn't.
(a) The Mishnah rules - that a 'Cheresh, Shoteh ve'Katan' cannot render the community Yotzei ...
(b) ... based on the principle - that whoever is not obligated to perform a Mitzvah canot render the community Yotzei (See Tos. Yom-Tov).