(a)Question: The Mishnah states that the mouthpiece must be overlaid with gold, but a Beraisa states that this invalidates the Shofar!?
(b)Answer: The Mishnah is referring to placing the gold at a distance from where one places one's mouth.
2)THE ACCOMPANYING TRUMPETS
(a)Question: Surely it is impossible to hear both the Shofar and the trumpets:
1."Zachor" and "Shamor" were said by Hash-m simultaneously, which the mouth cannot say and the ear cannot hear.
(b)Answer: The Shofar was therefore sounded for longer than the trumpets.
1.We see from this that it suffices to hear the end of the Shofar blast alone, and by inference to hear the beginning alone.
2.Question: We see that this is not so, as if the end Teki'ah was double-length, it still does not count as the first Teki'ah of the next set!?
3.Answer: The note has not been separated into two.
4.Question: "If someone blows a Shofar into a pit, cistern or barrel, then he is Yotzei if he hears the sound of the Shofar, but not if he hears the echo" - but why doesn't the first part of the note (before it combines with the echo) suffice?
(c)Replacement answer: Two sounds from two sources can be discerned; but from a single source, they cannot be discerned.
1.Question: We see that two sounds from two sources cannot be discerned, as a Beraisa states that two people may not simultaneously translate for the one reading from the Torah!?
2.Answer: In the Seifa, it states that even ten people may simultaneously recite Hallel and Megillah; since people are eager to hear it, they can discern the words, and the same is true for Shofar.
(d)Question: If so (that two sounds from two sources can be discerned), why is the Shofar sounded for longer?
(e)Answer: In order to show that the mitzvah of the day is the Shofar.
(a)Question: Why does the Shofar of Rosh Hashanah have its mouthpiece covered with gold, and that of a Ta'anis is covered with silver?
(b)Answer: We see in a Pasuk that assemblies (such as a Ta'anis) require silver.
(c)Alternate answer: The Torah is concerned that we shouldn't have too high expenses.
1.Question: If so, why is the Shofar of Rosh Hashanah covered with gold?
2.Answer: The honor of Yom Tov is a more important consideration.
(d)Rav Papa bar Shmuel wanted to use a Shofar and trumpets as described in the Mishnah, but Rava told him that it only applies to the Beis ha'Mikdash.
1.Likewise, a Beraisa states that only in the Beis ha'Mikdash was there both; but elsewhere, on a Ta'anis there was no Shofar and on Rosh Hashanah (and Yovel) there were no trumpets.
(e)R. Chalafta in Tzippori ruled to use a Shofar and trumpets, as did R. Chananyah ben Tradyon in Sichni.
1.When the matter came before the Chachamim, they ruled that this was only to be done in the Beis ha'Mikdash.
2.The source for this is the Pasuk which states that the trumpets together with the Shofar are to be sounded (only) before Hash-m (i.e. in the Beis ha'Mikdash).
4)YOVEL AND ROSH HASHANAH
(a)Our Tefilah on Rosh Hashanah that it is the day of creation follows the view of R. Eliezer that the world was created in Tishrei.
(b)Question: The Mishnah states that Yovel has the same Berachos as Rosh Hashanah - but it doesn't contain this!?
(c)Answer: That statement only refers to the rest of the Tefillos.
(d)An alternative reading presents this as an answer to the suggestion that the Mishnah cannot follow R. Eliezer.
5)MISHNAH: LAWS OF SHOFAR
(a)A Shofar that split and was glued together is invalid.
(b)A Shofar that was made from pieces that were glued together is invalid.
(c)A Shofar which had a hole that was stopped up is only valid if it did not impede the sound.
(d)If someone blows a Shofar into a pit, cistern or barrel, then he is Yotzei if he hears the sound of the Shofar, but not if he hears the echo.
(e)If someone was passing by a Shul and heard the Shofar or Megillah, then he is Yotzei only if he had in mind to be.
6)ALTERATIONS TO THE SHOFAR
(a)A Beraisa states:
1.A Shofar that was shortened is Kosher.
2.A Shofar that was scraped down is Kosher.
3.A Shofar that was covered with gold is only Kosher if this was not done at the mouthpiece.
4.If it was coated with gold on the inside, it is Pasul.
5.If it was coated on the outside, it is only Kosher if it does not change its sound.
6.If one Shofar was inserted inside another, it is only Kosher if the sound of the inner one is heard.
(b)A Beraisa states:
1.If a Shofar was scraped down, whether from the outside or inside, it is Kosher.
2.If it was scraped down to the thinnest layer, it is Kosher.
3.If one Shofar was inserted inside another, it is only Kosher if the sound of the inner one is heard.
4.If a Shofar was inverted, it is not Kosher.
i.This doesn't mean that it was turned inside-out, but rather that the narrow end was widened and the wide end was narrowed.
ii.It is Pasul because we see from a Pasuk that it must be carried in the same way as the animal carries it (i.e. without alteration).
7)ADDITIONS TO THE SHOFAR
(a)A Beraisa states:
1.If anything was added to the Shofar, whether made from horn or not, it is Pasul.
2.If a hole was filled, whether with horn or another material, it is Pasul.
3.(R. Nosson): If it was filled with horn, it is Kosher.
4.(R. Yochanan): This is only true if most of the original Shofar is intact.
i.The inference is that if a different material was used, it is Pasul even if most of it is intact.
5.(Alternate version) (R. Yochanan): If it was filled with a different material, it is Pasul only if most of the original is gone.
i.The inference is that if it is filled with horn, it is Kosher if most of it is intact.
6.If it was coated with gold on the inside, it is Pasul.
7.If it was coated on the outside, it is only Kosher if it does not change its sound.
8.If it was split along its length, it is Pasul.
9.If it was split along its width, it is Kosher only if the minimum size for a Shofar remains intact.
i.The minimum size is such that it can be grasped in one's hand and protrude on either side.
10.If the sound was thin, thick or dry, it is Kosher, as all sounds are Kosher.
11.(Sent to Shmuel's father): If it was pierced, it is Kosher.
i.Question: This is obvious - how else is it to be blown?
ii.Answer: It means that they left the bone inside it and pierced the bone.
iii.The Chidush is that it is not a Chatzitzah, as it is of the same kind as the horn.
8)BLOWING INTO A PIT
(a)(R. Huna): It is only those standing outside the pit who are not Yotzei, but those inside the pit are Yotzei.
1.A Beraisa, which states that they are Yotzei, supports this qualification.
2.Some learn it as a contradiction and resolve it in this way.