1)MISHNAH: THE FOUR JUDGMENTS OF THE YEAR
(a)On Pesach, judgment is passed concerning produce.
(b)On Shavuos, judgment is passed concerning fruit.
(c)On Rosh Hashanah, all the world passes like Bnei Maron for Judgment.
(d)On Sukos, judgment is passed concerning water.
2)THE JUDGMENT OF PRODUCE
(a)Question: Which produce is being judged?
1.Answer: The produce presently in the fields.
2.Question: When was judgment passed for the things that happened to it until now?
(b)Answer: It refers to the produce that is due to be sown.
(c)Question: This implies that one judgment is passed for each crop, but we see otherwise in a Beraisa:
1.If calamity befalls a crop before Pesach, it was decided in the previous year.
2.If it happens after Pesach, it was decided this year.
3.If calamity befalls a person before Yom Kipur, it was decided in the previous year.
4.If it happens after Yom Kipur, it was decided this year.
(d)Answer (Rava): Two judgments are passed on each crop.
(e)(Abayey): Therefore, if a person sees his slow crops doing well, he should quickly plant some fast-growing crops (as it is a year of a good verdict).
3)THE AUTHORSHIP OF THE MISHNAH
(a)Question: Who does the Mishnah follow?
1.The Gemara cites four opinions in a Beraisa that differ from the Mishnah:
i.(R. Meir) Everything is judged on Rosh Hashanah and the verdicts are sealed on Yom Kipur.
ii.(R. Yehudah): Everything is judged on Rosh Hashanah and the verdicts are sealed on different dates; Pesach for produce, Shavuos for fruit, Sukos for water and Yom Kipur for man.
iii.(R. Yosi): Man is judged every day, as derived from a Pasuk.
iv.(R. Nosson): Man is judged every moment, as derived from Pasuk.
(b)Answer: The Mishnah follows R. Yehudah and is referring to the verdicts.
(c)Question: The Mishnah sets the date for man as Rosh Hashanah (not Yom Kipur)!?
(d)Answer (Rava): The Mishnah refers to the beginning of the judgment process and follows Tana d'Bei R. Yishmael:
1.On Pesach, judgment is passed concerning produce.
2.On Shavuos, judgment is passed concerning fruit.
3.On Sukos, judgment is passed concerning water.
4.Man is judged on Rosh Hashanah and his verdict is sealed on Yom Kipur.
4)THE JUDGMENT OF MAN
(a)Question (R. Chisda): What is the reason of R. Yosi (that man is judged every day)?
1.Answer: He gave a Pasuk as his reason!?
2.Question: Why didn't he say the same as R. Nosson?
3.Answer: R. Nosson's Pasuk is only referring to Hash-m studying man.
4.Question: The same could be said for R. Yosi's Pasuk!?
(b)Answer (R. Chisda): R. Yosi's source is a Pasuk that speaks of daily judgment.
1.This Pasuk also teaches us that a king is judged before his people.
2.The reason is that it is improper for him to have to wait in line.
3.Alternately, the reason is that he should be judged before the Judge grows angry.
(c)(R. Yosef): Our daily prayer for the sick is in accordance with R. Yosi's view that man is judged daily.
1.Alternately, it follows the Rabanan, in accordance with R. Yitzchak's view that prayer helps even after a verdict has been passed.
(d)(R. Yehudah citing R. Akiva): The Omer is brought on Pesach to influence the judgment for the crops which takes place at that time.
1.The Two Loaves are brought on Shavuos to influence the judgment for fruit which takes place at that time.
2.The water-libation takes place on Sukos to influence the judgment for rains which takes place at that time.
3.On Rosh Hashanah we say Malchuyos to accept Hash-m's sovereignty, Zichronos to raise a remembrance of us before Him, with the aid of the Shofar (Shofaros).
(a)(R. Avahu): We use a ram's horn for a Shofar to allude to the Akeidah of Yitzchak.
1.Hash-m then considers it as though we bound ourselves in an Akeidah.
(b)Question (R. Yizchak): Why do we blow Shofar on Rosh Hashanah?
1.Answer: Because the Torah said so!
2.Question: Rather, why do we blow a Teru'ah?
3.Answer: Because the Torah said so!
4.Question: Rather, why do we blow Teki'ah and Teru'ah both before and during the Amidah?
(c)Answer: Doing the mitzvah twice confounds the Satan.
(d)(R. Yitzchak): Any year where Shofar was not blown at its beginning will suffer misfortune at its end.
1.The reason is that the Satan was not confounded.
6)R. YITZCHAK'S STATEMENTS ON JUDGMENT AND FESTIVALS
(a)(R. Yitzchak): in any year where the people humbled themselves at the beginning, they will prosper at its end, as derived from a Pasuk.
(b)A person is judged according to his deeds at that time, as derived from a Pasuk about Yishmael.
(c)Three things remind Hash-m of a person's sins:
1.If he walks under a collapsing wall;
2.If he is confident in the power of his prayer;
3.If he calls on Hash-m to judge his case against another.
i.(R. Chanan): Anyone who calls on Hash-m to judge their case against another is themselves punished first, as derived from Sarah.
(d)Four things tear up the verdict against a person:
1.Charity, as derived from a Pasuk;
2.Crying out in prayer, as derived from a Pasuk;
3.Changing one's name, as derived from a Pasuk about Sarai/Sarah;
4.Changing one's ways, as derived from the episode of Ninveih.
5.Some add - changing one's place of residence;
i.This is derived from Avraham moving to Eretz Yisrael to become a great nation.
ii.Others attribute that to the merit of Eretz Yisrael.
(e)A person must greet his teacher on all festive days, as derived from a Pasuk.
(f)A person must purify himself before each festival, as derived from a Pasuk.
1.(Beraisa): The Pasuk prohibits touching a dead Treife animal.
2.It can't be referring to a general ban even for Yisraelim, as they aren't even prohibited from stringent Tum'ah.
3.It must be referring to a requirement to purify oneself before a festival.
7)THE BOOKS OF JUDGMENT
(a)(R. Kruspada'i citing R. Yochanan): Three books are opened on Rosh Hashanah:
1.That of the utterly righteous - who are signed and sealed immediately for life;
2.That of the utterly wicked - who are signed and sealed immediately for death;
3.That of intermediate people - whose fate is undecided until Yom Kipur.
i.If they merit it, they are signed for life;
ii.Otherwise, they are signed for death.
(b)(R. Avin): This is all derived from a Pasuk (as cited).
(c)(R. Nachman bar Yitzchak): It is derived from a different Pasuk (as cited).
8)THE BERAISA OF PEOPLES' JUDGMENTS
(a)(Beis Shamai): There are three groups of people on the day of judgment:
1.The utterly righteous are signed and sealed immediately for eternal life;
2.The utterly wicked are signed and sealed immediately for Gehinom;
3.Intermediate people descend to Gehinom, cry out and emerge, as derived from a Pasuk.
i.(Beis Hillel): Hash-m tilts the scales in their favor (so they avoid Gehinom).