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INSIGHTS INTO THE DAILY DAF

Kollel Iyun Hadaf

prepared by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Yerushalayim

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Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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ROSH HASHANAH 35 (14 Sivan - Siyum of Rosh Hashanah) - Dedicated by Doug Rabin in memory of his mother, Leah Miriam bat Yisroel (Lucy) Rabin, in honor of her Yahrzeit.
 
12th CYCLE DEDICATIONS
 
ROSH HASHANAH 35 (19 Teves) - Dedicated in memory of Hagaon Rav Yisrael Avraham Abba ben Harav Chaim Binyamin Ze'ev Krieger ZT"L, author of Yad Yisrael (on Rambam) and many other Sefarim. Dedicated by his granddaughter and her husband, Mr. and Mrs. Avi and Lily Berger, of Queens, New York.

1) HALACHAH: FULFILLING ONE'S OBLIGATION TO RECITE SHEMONEH ESREH BY LISTENING TO THE "SHALI'ACH TZIBUR"

OPINIONS: Raban Gamliel and the Chachamim disagree about whether every person may fulfill his obligation to recite the Shemoneh Esreh by listening to the Chazan's recitation, or whether only those who do not know how to pray by themselves. Raban Gamliel maintains that everyone, even one who knows how to pray by himself (a "Baki," or expert), may fulfill his obligation with the Chazan's recitation. The Chachamim maintain that only one who does not know how to pray by himself (an "Eino Baki") may fulfill his obligation with the Chazan's recitation. The Gemara rules like Raban Gamliel in the case of the Shemoneh Esreh of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur (of Yovel; RAN and Rishonim), and even Beki'im (experts) may discharge their obligation by listening to the Chazan's Shemoneh Esreh.

The Gemara later qualifies this ruling. Even according to Raban Gamliel, the only Beki'im who may discharge their obligation with the Chazan's Shemoneh Esreh are those who are out in the fields and cannot come into the city to pray in the synagogue. Since they have no other option, they fulfill their obligation with the Chazan's Shemoneh Esreh. Those who are in the city, however, who have the opportunity to recite Shemoneh Esreh themselves may not fulfill their obligation with the Chazan's Shemoneh Esreh.

The Gemara implies that one who knows how to pray by himself may not fulfill his obligation by listening to the Chazan. The Rishonim differ about the practical application of this Halachah.

(a) The RIF rules that the Gemara excludes only a Baki who is in the city on Rosh Hashanah and who did not come to the synagogue. Such a person does not fulfill his obligation with the Chazan's Shemoneh Esreh (because by not coming to the synagogue he shows that he does not want to rely on the Chazan but rather he wants to pray on his own). However, if he did come to the synagogue, Raban Gamliel would rule that he does fulfill his obligation with the Chazan's Shemoneh Esreh. (TOSFOS to 34b, DH Kach, asserts that this is the opinion of Rashi as well.)

How, though, can the Baki in the fields rely on the Chazan's Shemoneh Esreh when he does not even hear it?

The PISKEI RID explains that prayer is like Korbanos (see Berachos 25a). When the Kohen offers a public Korban, a group of Yisraelim stand nearby ("Ma'amados Yisrael") and thereby fulfill -- on behalf of all of the Jewish people -- the obligation to stand over the Korban while it is offered (this obligation is derived from the verse, "Tishmeru l'Hakriv Li b'Mo'ado" (Bamidbar 28:2; see RASHI Yoma 34b, DH Anshei Ma'amad). Similarly, the prayer of the Chazan fulfills the obligation of all of the people who are not present.

(b) TOSFOS (34b, DH Kach) quotes a dissenting opinion which maintains that a Baki who does not work in the fields may not fulfill his obligation with the Chazan's Shemoneh Esreh, even if he comes to the synagogue and listens to it. Since he was not busy working in the fields before Rosh Hashanah, he had time to review and prepare the Rosh Hashanah Shemoneh Esreh, and if he neglected to do so he may not fulfill his obligation by listening to the Chazan's Shemoneh Esreh. In contrast, the Baki who works in the fields fulfills his obligation with the Chazan's Shemoneh Esreh, but only if he comes to the synagogue and listens to it. Even though he is a Baki, he is not familiar with the Shemoneh Esreh of Rosh Hashanah because of its length and infrequency. Since he was busy working in the fields before Rosh Hashanah, he did not have time to review the Shemoneh Esreh and prepare for its recitation. (A person who is not a Baki may fulfill his obligation with the Chazan's Shemoneh Esreh even if he does not work in the fields, because he does not know how to prepare for and recite the Shemoneh Esreh.)

According to this view, even Raban Gamliel maintains that the only Baki who may fulfill his obligation with the Chazan's Shemoneh Esreh is the Baki who did not have time to prepare his Tefilah before Rosh Hashanah because he was busy working in the fields. Such a Baki may listen to the Tefilah of the Chazan on Rosh Hashanah.

HALACHAH:

(a) The Halachah on Rosh Hashanah follows the view of Raban Gamliel (as the Gemara notes) who says that even a Baki may fulfill his obligation with the Chazan's Shemoneh Esreh. With regard to a Baki who was not in the fields and had time to prepare the Tefilah before Rosh Hashanah, the TUR (OC 591) cites both opinions mentioned above and does not side with one over the other. (Accordingly, it seems that one should be stringent and not rely on the Chazan's Shemoneh Esreh in such a case.)

(b) A person who is not a Baki may fulfill his obligation with the Chazan's Shemoneh Esreh on any day of the year and not only on Rosh Hashanah, as the SHULCHAN ARUCH (OC 124:1) writes. However, he must listen carefully to every word the Chazan says. The MISHNAH BERURAH adds that he must also understand every word (in contrast to one recites his own Shemoneh Esreh, who fulfills his obligation even if he does not understand every word).

(c) The RITVA (34b) writes that one who erred in his Shemoneh Esreh and needs to repeat it (for example, he omitted "Ya'aleh v'Yavo" on Rosh Chodesh) may fulfill his obligation by listening to the Chazan's Shemoneh Esreh, even if he is a Baki. This is because all opinions agree that one fulfills his Torah obligation to pray by listening to the Chazan's Shemoneh Esreh, and it was the Rabanan who enacted a Takanah that a Baki must pray by himself and not rely on the Chazan. In the case of a Baki who erred in his first Shemoneh Esreh, the Rabanan left the Halachah d'Oraisa in place and allowed him to fulfill his obligation with the Chazan in order that he not have to recite Shemoneh Esreh twice. The Ritva bases this ruling on the Gemara in Berachos (29b).

However, the MORDECHAI (#721) disagrees and says that even in this case a Baki may not fulfill his obligation by listening to the Chazan's Shemoneh Esreh.

The PRI MEGADIM (cited by the BI'UR HALACHAH in OC 124) writes that if one is in doubt about whether he already recited the Shemoneh Esreh of Shacharis on Shabbos, he should listen to the Chazan's Shemoneh Esreh and have in mind to fulfill his obligation out of doubt. On a weekday, one who is in doubt about whether he recited the Shemoneh Esreh may recite a Tefilas Nedavah (a "voluntary" Shemoneh Esreh). Since, one may not recite a Tefilas Nedavah on Shabbos (see Insights to Berachos 21:2), one should at least try to fulfill his obligation by listening to the Chazan's Shemoneh Esreh.

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