[32a - 49 lines; 32b - 48 lines]
1)[line 1]וקבעיה רביה בשמיהKAV'EI RABEI BI'SHEMEI- his Rebbi established the Takanah in his name
2)[line 2]אבותAVOS - Magen Avraham (THE NINE BERACHOS OF ROSH HASHANAH)
The Gemara lists the nine blessings of the Rosh Hashanah [Musaf] Shemoneh Esreh. They are:
1.אבות AVOS - Magen Avraham
2.וגבורות GEVUROS - Atah Gibor
3a. וקדושת השם KEDUSHAS HA'SHEM - Atah Kadosh v'Shimcha Kadosh... ha'Melech ha'Kadosh
3b. מלכיות MALCHUYOS - the blessing which contains verses that refer to HaSh-m as the King in the Musaf Shemoneh Esreh on Rosh Hashanah
4.קדושת היום KEDUSHAS HA'YOM - the blessing which talks about the sanctity of the day. We include this blessing as part of the blessing of Malchuyos.
5.זכרונות ZICHRONOS - the blessing which contains verses that affirm that HaSh-m remembers all actions, in which we relate how, in the past, HaSh-m remembered our deeds and protected us and in which we beseech HaSh-m to remember us and for a good year
6.שופרות SHOFAROS - the blessing which contains verses that mention the sounding of the Shofar, in which we beseech HaSh-m to listen to our blowing of the Shofar
7.עבודה AVODAH - the blessing of Retzeh, which is a prayer for the return of the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash
8.והודאה HODA'AH - Modim, in which we give thanks to the Creator
9.וברכת כהנים BIRKAS KOHANIM - Sim Shalom, at the beginning of which the Kohanim bless the people
3)[line 9]רחמנא אמר אידכרRACHMANA AMAR IDKAR- the Torah said to mention it
4)[line 10]ואשתניISHTENI- since it has been made different (from Zichronos and Shofaros, since you say not to blow the Shofar in this blessing), you should say that it has also been made different to say only nine verses
5)[line 11]בני אליםBNEI ELIM- sons of the powerful (the Patriarchs who were powerful in their faith); alt. sons of rams (the Patriarchs allowed themeselves to be slaughtered like animals for HaSh-m's sake, particularly Yitzchak who was prepared to allow himself to be sacrificed by Avraham (MIDRASH SHOCHER TOV); according to the Midrash (Bereishis Rabah 56:10) this could be read as Ilmim (mute), because the Patriarchs remained silent and uncomplaining when they were tested by HaSh-m
6)[line 13]בהדרת קדשHADRAS KODESH- splendor of holiness
7a)[line 29]מלכיות עם קדושת היום אמר להוMALCHUYOS IM KEDUSHAS HA'SHEM AMAR LEHU- one recites the verses of Malchuyos as part of the third blessing of the sanctity of the day
b)[line 38]"הללוהו בתקע שופר""HALELUHU B'SEKA SHOFAR"- "Praise Him with the blast of the Shofar" (Tehilim 150:3)
8)[line 38]עשרת הדברותASERES HA'DIBROS- the Ten Commandments
9)[line 39]עשרה מאמרותASARAH MAA'MAROS- the ten commands with which HaSh-m created the world
10)[line 46]שבעה רקיעיםSHIV'AH REKI'IM- the seven [levels of] firmaments in the sky, as described in Chagigah 12b
11)[line 1]"חי אני נאם ה' אלקים אם לא ביד חזקה ובזרוע נטויה ובחמה שפוכה אמלוך עליכם""CHAI ANI, NE'UM HASH-M ELOKIM, IM LO B'YAD CHAZAKAH UVI'ZERO'A NETUYAH UV'CHEMAH SHEFUCHAH EMLOCH ALEICHEM" - "I swear, says HaSh-m Elokim, that I will rule over you with a strong hand, an outstretched arm, and pouring wrath." (Yechezkel 20:33) (HASH-M WILL EXERT CONTROL)
(a)The Navi Yechezkel rebuked Yisrael for their constant idol worship, and informed them that HaSh-m will no longer seek their good. He emphasized that this does not give them a carte blanche to leave the jurisdiction of HaSh-m and join the ranks of the nations of the world to serve idols of wood and stone.
(b)On the contrary, HaSh-m warns them that they are obligated to return to Him, and should they attempt to relinquish His sovereignty, He will force them to accept Him as King.
12)[line 2]ובחמה שפוכהCHEMAH SHEFUCHAH- poured out anger
13)[line 4]ריתחאRISCHA- anger
14)[line 5]וליפרוקינןV'LIFROKINAN- and he should redeem us
15)[line 7]"תקעו שופר בגבעה חצצרה ברמה הריעו בית און אחריך בנימין""TIK'U BA'SHOFAR B'GIV'AH CHATZOTZRAH BA'RAMAH HARI'U BEIS AVEN ACHARECHA BINYAMIN"- "Sound the Shofar in Giv'ah, and the trumpets in Ramah. Blow in Beis Aven, after you Binyamin." (Hoshea 5:8)
16)[line 8]ירגזו עמיםYIRGEZU AMIM- nations will tremble
17)[line 9]"זכור ה' לבני אדום את יום ירושלם האמרים ערו ערו עד היסוד בה""ZECHOR HASH-M LI'VNEI EDOM ES YOM YERUSHALAYIM HA'OMRIM ARU ARU AD HA'YESOD BAH"- "Remember HaSh-m, the people of Edom, the day of Yerushalayim, who say, 'Destroy! Destroy! Right down to its foundation.'" (Tehilim 137:7) - David ha'Melech prophecies and mourns the destruction of the first Beis ha'Mikdash (before it has even been built) at the hand of the Babylonians, encouraged by the sons of Edom.
18)[line 10]"והלך בסערות תימן""V'HALACH B'SA'AROS TEIMAN"- "... and He will will go in storms to (i.e. He will storm) the south [of Eretz Yisrael.]" (Zecharyah 9:14) - According to some, this refers to the ancient Greeks. According to others, it refers to the future, to the remnant of the Roman Empire.
19)[line 12]"זכרני ה' ברצון עמך [פקדני בישועתך]""ZACHRENI HASH-M BI'RETZON AMECHA [PAKDENI B'YESHU'ASECHA]"- "Remember me, HaSh-m, when You show Your nation favor; [recall me with Your salvation]" (Tehilim 106:4)
20)[line 12]פקדונות הרי הן כזכרונותPIKDONOS HAREI HEN K'ZICHRONOS- verses in which remembrances are stated with a language of "Pikadon" (remembrance implying special Divine Providence), which count as verses for Zichronos
21)[line 12]"זכרה לי אלקי לטובה כל אשר עשיתי על העם הזה""ZACHRAH LI ELOKAI L'TOVAH KOL ASHER ASISI AL HA'AM HA'ZEH" - "Remember for me, my G-d, for the good, all that I did for this people." (Nechemyah 5:19) (NECHEMYAH'S GOOD DEEDS)
(a)Nechemyah was one of the great leaders of the time, who was instrumental in bringing the people back to HaSh-m and molding them into a nation, as well as helping to rebuild the Beis ha'Mikdash.
(b)In this chapter, however, Nechemyah referred mainly to his efforts regarding the poor, who had been exploited by the rich to the point that they had to give their children as slaves and their lands as collateral to pay off their debts. In addition, they paid heavy taxes to the leaders who preceded him.
(c)Nechemyah rectified all of this. The wealthy undertook to help their poor brethren, and the heavy taxes stopped. In addition, he refers to the 150 people who ate regularly at his table, not counting the converts who kept on joining their ranks.
22)[line 16]"שאו שערים ראשיכם והנשאו פתחי עולם ויבוא מלך הכבוד""SE'U SHE'ARIM ROSHEICHEM VE'HINAS'U PISCHEI OLAM V'YAVO MELECH HA'KAVOD" - "Lift up your heads, O gates, and let the everlasting entrances be uplifted, to let the King of Glory enter.... [The Lord of Hosts, He is the King of Glory forever.]" (Tehilim 24:7-10) (SHLOMO AND THE GATES OF THE BEIS HA'MIKDASH)
(a)The Gemara in Shabbos (30a) relates the story behind these verses. When Shlomo ha'Melech brought the Aron ha'Kodesh from the City of David to the Beis ha'Mikdash to place it in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim, the gates of the Beis ha'Mikdash refused to open. Shlomo pleaded with the gates to open and proclaimed this verse.
(b)The gates, however, thinking that he was referring to himself (as the "king of glory"), wanted to engulf him. They asked him angrily, "Who is the King of Glory," and he replied, "HaSh-m, Who is strong and mighty." He repeated his request, concluding with the verse, "Who is the King of Glory? The Lord of Hosts, He is the King of Glory forever."
(c)The gates still refused to open. They opened only after Shlomo mentioned the merit of his father, David ha'Melech. This proved to all of David's enemies that HaSh-m had forgiven him for the "sin" of Bas Sheva.
23)[line 17]עזוז וגבורIZUZ V'GIBOR- the mighty and strong
24)[line 20]ראשונהRISHONAH- the first two verses of Se'u She'arim Rosheichem contains two recitals of Malchuyos
25)[line 32]וותיקיןVESIKIN- "[like] the diligent"; (a) humble people who cherish the Mitzvos (RASHI Berachos 9b) and who try to do the Mitzvos as soon as possible (RASHI Berachos 26a); (b) outstanding scholars noted for deep analysis and sharp reasoning (TALMIDEI RABEINU YONAH Daf 5a of the pages of the Rif)
26)[line 37]השני מתקיעHA'SHENI MASKI'A- the second Chazan tells the one who blows the Shofar to blow
Shevus refers to actions that the Rabanan prohibited on Shabbos. The Torah states, "uva'Yom ha'Shevi'i Tishbos" - "and you shall rest on the seventh day" (Shemos 23:12). The Rabanan learn that this applies even to things that are not Melachos, and as a result they prohibited actions that were permitted mid'Oraisa (see Shabbos 114b).
28)[line 46]מתעסקין עמהןMIS'ASKIN IMAHEN- we busy ourselves with them
29)[line 46]והמתעסקHA'MIS'ASEK- one who blows accidentally, without intention