[20a - 41 lines; 20b - 26 lines]

1)[line 2]על הראייהAL HA'RE'IYAH- based upon eyewitness testimony

2)[line 8]נעבריה האידנאNE'ABREI HA'IDNA- extend the month by that day

3)[line 9]דאקלעIKLA- occurs

4)[line 13]תקנת הקרבןTAKANAS HA'KORBAN- [the need to know] when to offer the Korban [Musaf of Rosh Chodesh]

5)[line 18]כי אתא עולאKI ASA ULA- when Ula came [from Eretz Yisrael]

6a)[line 19]ידעי חברין בבלאיYAD'EI CHAVRIN BAVLA'EI- our Babylonian colleagues are aware

b)[line 19]מאי טיבותא עבדינן בהדייהוMAI TIVUSA AVDINAN BA'HADAIHU- of the great service that [Beis Din in Eretz Yisrael] has done for them

7)[line 20]מאי טיבותא?MAI TIVUSA?- (a) what [do those in Bavel] gain [by this]? (RASHI); (b) what favor [is this]? [Those in Bavel now must always observe two days of Rosh Hashanah, since Beis Din in Yerushalayim may add a thirtieth day to Elul!] (TOSFOS DH Mai)

8a)[line 20]משום ירקיאMISHUM YARKAYA- so that vegetables [do not wither over a two-day period of Shabbos and Yom Tov occurring concomitantly, which would have occurred if not for the day added to Elul]

b)[line 20]משום מתיאMISHUM MESAYA- so that those who die [on the first day of a two-day period of Shabbos and Yom Tov occurring concomitantly should not be left for forty-eight hours before being buried, which would have occurred if not for the day added to Elul]

9)[line 22]לאורתא?L'URTA?- at night [following Yom ha'Kipurim]?

10)[line 25]אפשר בעממיEFSHAR BA'AMAMEI- it is possible for Nochrim [to bury the dead on the first day of a two day period of Shabbos and Yom Tov (Beitzah 6a)]

11)[line 26]אפשר בחמימיEFSHAR B'CHAMIMEI- it is possible to (a) [soak the vegetables] in hot water [and restore their freshness] (RASHI); (b) [eat the vegetables even though they have become withered and] overheated (RABEINU CHANANEL, 1st explanation); (c) [cook the vegetables, leave them] in hot water [and eat them after Yom ha'Kipurim] (RABEINU CHANANEL, 2nd explanation)

12a)[line 26]לדידןL'DIDAN- for us [in Bavel]

b)[line 26]לדידהוL'DIDHU- for them [in Eretz Yisrael]

13)[line 27]חביל לן עלמאCHAVIL LAN ALMA- our [part of the] world is hot

14)[line 27]איני!EINI!- it is not so [that concerns of convenience allow Beis Din to add a day to a month]!

15)[line 29]כזה ראה וקדשK'ZEH RE'EH V'KADESH- observe [the new moon] like it is [now], and [then] proclaim [the month]

16a)[line 30]לעברוL'ABRO- to extend [the month by adding a thirtieth day, even though the new moon had been seen the night before]

b)[line 30]לקדשוL'KADSHO- to proclaim [the month on the thirtieth day, even though the new moon had not been seen the night before]

17)[line 32]מאיימיןME'AIMIN- intimidate

18a)[line 33]לעברוL'ABRO- to [remain silent so that Beis Din can] extend [the month by adding a thirtieth day]

b)[line 34]לקדשוL'KADSHO- to [testify that they saw the new moon even though it did not actually appear so that Beis Din can] proclaim [the month on the thirtieth day] (see Insights #'s 1 and 2)

19a)[line 36]הא בניסן ותשריHA B'NISAN V'TISHREI- (a) [that which it is permitted to intimidate witnesses in order to proclaim the month early] applies to [the months of] Nisan and Tishrei [since the dates of the three festivals of Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos depend upon the alignment of these two months] (RASHI, first explanation of TOSFSO DH Ha); (b) [that which it is forbidden to intimidate witnesses in order to proclaim the month early] applies to [the months of] Nisan and Tishrei [since the dates of the three festivals of Pesach, Shavos, and Sukos depend upon the alignment of these two months] (second explanation of TOSFSO DH Ha)

b)[line 37]הא בשאר ירחיHA B'SHA'AR YARCHEI- (a) [that which it is forbidden to intimidate witnesses in order to proclaim the month early] applies to all other months (RASHI, first explanation of TOSFSO DH Ha); (b) [that which it is permitted to intimidate witnesses in order to proclaim the month early] applies to all other months (second explanation of TOSFSO DH Ha)

20)[line 38]עצרת לעצרתATZERES L'ATZERES- [the day of the week upon which the] festival of Shavuos [falls on one year] and [the day upon which] the festival of Shavuos [falls the following year]

21a)[line 39]ד' ימים בלבדARBA'AH YAMIM BILVAD- four days [of the week] only. This is because Acherim maintain that every other month must be thirty days long, while every other month is twenty-nine days long. This results in a year of 354 days, which is exactly fifty weeks and four days.

b)[line 39]חמשהCHAMISHAH- five [days of the week, since the extra month must be twenty-nine days long according to Acherim]

20b----------------------------------------20b

22a)[line 1]האי מיחזי כשקראHAI MECHZI K'SHIKRA- [when witnesses who saw the new moon remain silent and the month is extended] it appears as [if Beis Din is acting] untruthfully [since many others saw the new moon as well and wonder why Beis Din did not act upon it]

b)[line 1]האי לא מיחזי כשקראHAI LO MECHZI K'SHIKRA- [when witnesses claim to have seen the new moon even though it did not actually appear] it does not appear as [if Beis Din is acting] untruthfully [since no one will wonder that they did not see the new moon just because others did]

23)[line 2]יכילנא לתקוני לכולה גולהYACHILNA L'TAKUNEI L'CHULAH GOLAH- I am able to prepare [a calendar] for the entire Diaspora [without the aid of witnesses, for I am an expert in astronomy]

24)[line 4]בסוד העיבורSOD HA'IBUR- a Beraisa concerning the synchronization of the solar and lunar years that is cryptic in the extreme

25)[line 4]נולד קודם חצות או נולד אחר חצותNOLAD KODEM CHATZOS O NOLAD L'ACHAR CHATZOS- the Molad (the timing of the new moon, conjunction) occurs before midday or the Molad occurs following midday. This statement implies that there is some practical difference between these two possible occurrences, but does not reveal what that difference is.

26)[line 7]סליקS ALIK- went up [to Eretz Yisrael]

27)[line 8]צריך שיהא לילהTZARICH SHE'YEHEI LAILAH V'YOM MIN HA'CHADASH- a month may not be declared unless the old moon did not appear for the entire preceding night and following day. Practically, this means that even Rebbi Yochanan, who allows the intimidation of witnesses so that they proclaim the month even when the new moon had not yet made an appearance in certain circumstances, does not allow this when the old moon had been visible on the preceding night.

28)[line 8]וזו שאמר אבא אבוה דרבי שמלאיV'ZU SHE'AMAR ABA AVUHA D'REBBI SIMLA'I- and [additionally,] [the explanation of] this [cryptic statement] that Aba the father of d'Rebbi Simla'i [mentioned is]

29)[line 9]תולדתוTOLADTO- the timing of the Molad

30)[line 10]שנראה סמוך לשקיעת החמהSHE'NIR'EH SAMUCH LI'SHEKI'AS HA'CHAMAH- that it will be possible to view the new moon just after sunset

31)[line 13]לאכחושי סהדיL'AKCHUSHEI SAHADEI- to contradict [the testimony of] witnesses [who claim to have seen the moon after sunset on a day upon which the Molad did not occur until after midday]

32)[line 14]כ''ד שעי מכסי סיהראESRIM V'ARBA SHA'EI MICHSI SIHARA- the moon is hidden [at the beginning of every month] for twenty-four hours

33)[line 15]לדידן שית מעתיקא ותמני סרי מחדתאL'DIDAN, SHIS ME'ATIKA V'TAMNEI SEREI ME'CHADTA- we [in Eretz Yisrael, cannot see the last] six hours of the old moon nor [the first] eighteen hours of the new moon (see Insights)

34)[line 17]לאכחושי סהדיL'AKCHUSHEI SAHADEI- to contradict [the testimony of] witnesses [who claim that they saw the old moon and the new moon within twenty-four hours of each other]

35)[line 19]מנלן?MINA'LAN?- how do we know [that the day follows the night]?

36)[line 19]"... מערב עד ערב [תשבתו שבתכם]""ME'EREV AD EREV [TISHBESU SHABATCHEM]"- "... from evening until evening [you shall refrain from performing Melachah on your day of rest]" (Vayikra 23:32). This verse refers to Yom ha'Kipurim.

37)[line 20]"[...בערב תאכלו מצת] עד יום האחד ועשרים לחדש בערב""BA'EREV TOCHLU MATZOS,] AD YOM HA'ECHAD V'ESRIM LA'CHODESH BA'AREV"- "[... in the evening you shall eat Matzos,] until the twenty-first day of the month [of Nisan] in the evening." (Shemos 12:18) - This verse implies that the festival of Pesach begins and ends at night.

38)[line 21]משמעות דורשיןMASHMA'US DORSHIN- [which verse] to infer [this Halachah from]

39)[line 22]חצות לילהCHATZOS LAILAH- [whether the disallowance of proclaiming a month when the old moon was visible the previous night is in effect only if it had been visible following] midnight [or even if it had been visible from the beginning of the night]. This is because any Matzah eaten prior to midnight on the first night of Pesach is a fulfillment of the Mitzvah to eat Matzah then, whereas the prohibitions of Yom ha'Kipurim begin from the very beginning of the night.

40)[line 23]כל ספיקא לקמיה שדינןKOL SEFEIKA L'KAMEI SHADINAN- any [situation in which there is a] doubt [concerning the proper day upon which to celebrate a festival] results in [the observance of the most likely day and] the one following it. This is because it is possible that a day had been added to each of the previous two months, but not that each of the previous two months had been only twenty-nine days long.

41)[line 24]למימראL'MEIMRA- in other words

42a)[line 24]דחמיסרCHAMEISAR- the fifteenth [of either Nisan or Tishrei]

b)[line 24]ושיתסרSHITSAR- the sixteenth [of either Nisan or Tishrei]

c)[line 25]ארביסרARBEISAR- the fourteenth [of either Nisan or Tishrei]

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