BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
prepared by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
[5a - 17 lines; 5b - 41 lines]
1) [line 1] לינה LINAH
When a person offers a Korban, he must stay in Yerushalayim on the following night. This is learned from the verse in Devarim 16:7.
2) [line 14] כדי נסבה KEDI NASVAH - [Pesach] was listed [in the Beraisa] for no reason
3) [line 15] שלמי פסח SHALMEI PESACH - if the animal designated as a Korban Pesach was lost and another animal was sacrificed in its stead, the original animal becomes a Korban Shelamim (see also Background to Pesachim 72:1)
4) [line 2] נדר נדבה NEDER/NEDAVAH
(a) A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice, as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b) When a person states, "I pledge an Olah" ("Harei Alai Olah"), without singling out a specific animal, his pledge is called a Neder. When he sets aside an animal with which to fulfill his pledge, and the animal gets lost or dies, he must bring another in its place. If he states, "This animal is an Olah" ("Harei Zo Olah"), his pledge is called a Nedavah. If the animal gets lost or dies, he has no obligation to bring another in its place.
5) [line 6] חילופיו CHILUFAV - its Temurah; see below, entry #8
6) [line 10] ולא בקרבנך חטאV 'LO B'KORBANECHA CHET - (lit. your Korban will not have a sin) the Korban does not become Pasul if the owner transgresses Bal Te'acher
7) [line 14] תודה T ODAH
(a) The Todah (thanksgiving-offering) is a form of Shelamim that is eaten for only one day and one night (Vayikra 7:15). Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a meal offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar ibid.
(b) An animal that is sacrificed as a Todah is brought together with forty loaves of bread, ten each of the following:
1. unleavened loaves mixed with oil;
2. flat unleavened Matzos saturated with oil;
3. unleavened loaves made of boiled flour mixed with oil;
4. loaves of leavened bread.
(c) One loaf of each type of bread is given to the Kohen who performs the Zerikas ha'Dam of the Todah (Vayikra 7:14). (These four loaves are known as Terumas Lachmei Todah.) The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim are given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban are offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten on the day that it is slaughtered and the following night.
8) [line 15] בתמורתה TEMURASAH (TEMURAH)
(a) The Torah states, "Do not try to transfer or exchange it (an animal that has been designated as a Korban) [for another animal], neither a good animal for a bad one nor a bad one for a good one. If you do exchange an animal [of Kodesh] for another animal [that is not], both the original animal and the one given in exchange for it, will be Kodesh" (Vayikra 27:10).
(b) The second animal, or the Temurah, is a valid Korban, and if it has no Mum (blemish that invalidates it), it must also be offered on the Mizbe'ach (unless the original Korban was a Chatas or an Asham).
(c) Even if a person makes a Temurah unintentionally, he receives Malkus (lashes). Some explain that this is only true if he intended to create one type of Temurah, knowing that it is forbidden, and accidentally designated a different type of Temurah (e.g. a Temuras Shelamim instead of a Temuras Olah). Others maintain that even if he thought that it is permitted to make a Temurah, he nevertheless receives Malkus (see Chart to Temurah 17a).
(d) The Chinuch explains that the reason for this prohibition is to teach us the proper reverence that we must have for objects of Kedushah (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #351, #352).
9) [line 33] כפסולי המוקדשין PESULEI HA'MUKDASHIN
(a) Pesulei ha'Mukdashin are Korbanos that became unfit to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach because of a Mum (blemish). After they are redeemed, it is still forbidden to work with them and to shear them. The milk they produce is also forbidden. They are only permitted to be eaten after being slaughtered (Bechoros 15b).
(b) The Mishnah in Bechoros (5:1) states that Pesulei ha'Mikdashin may be sold in the marketplace and weighed with a Roman Libra, a pound. These acts are normally considered unfitting for Kodshim, and are prohibited to be done to a Bechor (see Background to Rosh ha'Shanah 4:17).
10) [line 40] בר הרצאה BAR HARTZA'AH - [Kodshim are offered as a gift or for atonement] to arouse HaSh-m's mercy [so that He should show us grace]