1)SLAUGHTER FOR PEOPLE WHO MIGHT NOT BE ABLE TO EAT
(a)(Mishnah): We slaughter for the following:
1.An Onen [if his relative died after noon - if he died before, this exempts the Onen from Pesach]; one who was unearthing a [person on whom fell a] heap; a prisoner who was promised to be let out; a sick or old person who can eat a k'Zayis.
(b)We do not slaughter for them alone, lest they will not be able to eat and the Korban will become Pasul (Rashi - if one will eat a k'Zayis; R. Chananel - we are concerned for Nosar. R. Yehonason - even though the sick or old person could surely eat a k'Zayis, if we cannot find others to join him he is detained to Pesach Sheni - he is not Chayav Kares, like someone b'Derech Rechokah who cannot reach the Azarah.)
(c)Therefore, if they were unable to eat (the Onen became Tamei from his Mes, the prisoner was not released, the sick or old person became weaker), they are exempt from Pesach Sheni, except for the excavator, for he was Pasul from the outset. (The Gemara below mentions the time of slaughter - really, to be Yotzei, he must have been Tahor through the time of Zerikah - perhaps the Gemara is not particular about this, because Zerikas Pesach is usually very soon after slaughter.)
(d)(Gemara - Rabah bar Huna): This applies to a Nochri prison - but if he was incarcerated by Yisraelim, we may slaughter for him alone - since they promised to release him [they will keep their word] - "She'eris Yisrael Lo Ya'asu Avlah v'Lo Yedabru Chazav."
(e)(Rav Chisda): This applies to a Nochri prison outside of Beis Pagi [outside Yerushalayim] - but if it is inside, we may slaughter for him alone, since [even if they do not release him] we can bring a k'Zayis to him to eat.
(f)(Mishnah): Therefore, if they were unable to eat...
(g)(Rabah bar bar Chanah): This is only if the heap was circular - but if it was long, even the excavator is exempt from Pesach Sheni - perhaps he was Tahor at the time of slaughter (he had not yet towered over the Mes).
(h)Support (Beraisa - R. Shimon, son of R. Yochanan ben Brokah): Sometimes an excavator must bring Pesach Sheni, sometimes he is exempt:
1.If the heap was circular, and the buried person was dead, the excavator must bring Pesach Sheni;
2.If the heap was long, he is exempt - perhaps he was Tahor at the time of slaughter (he had not yet towered over the Mes).
2)WHO MAY COMPRISE A CHABURAH?
(a)(Mishnah - R. Yehudah): We do not slaughter a Pesach for an individual [to eat by himself];
(b)R. Yosi permits.
(c)We do not slaughter for a Chaburah, even of 100 people, if even one of them (Rambam; Rashi - altogether they) cannot eat a k'Zayis.
(d)We do not make a Chaburah of women, slaves and children.
(e)(Gemara - Beraisa - R. Yehudah) Question: What is the source forbidding slaughtering Pesach for an individual?
(f)Answer: "Lo Suchal Lizbo'ach Es ha'Posach b'Achad" - you may not slaughter for one.
(g)R. Yosi says, we slaughter for an individual if he can eat it (Rambam - all of it; Rashi - a k'Zayis. (The Isur to cause Kodshim to be wasted is only mid'Rabanan; here we expound mid'Oraisa - Meshiv Nefesh.));
1.We do not slaughter for a Chaburah of 10 if they cannot eat it.
(h)Question: How does he expound "b'Achad"?
(i)Answer: He expounds like R. Shimon:
1.(Beraisa - R. Shimon): "Lo Suchal Lizbo'ach Es ha'Posach b'Achad" - this is a Lav against slaughtering Pesach on a Bamas Yachid (a private altar) at a time of Isur Bamos [regarding Pesach, i.e. at the time to offer Pesach. This is even in an era when Bamos are permitted for Nedarim and Nedavos.].
2.Suggestion: Perhaps this applies even at a time of Heter Bamos [at any other time, when Pesach is like a Shelamim]!
3.Rejection: "B'Achad She'arecha" - the Lav is only when all of Yisrael enter one gate [to offer Pesach, after noon on Erev Pesach. This is the conclusion in Zevachim 114B. Rashi here explains like the Gemara initially suggested there, that the Lav applies in an era when Bamos are forbidden. It is not clear how we learn this from "B'Achad She'arecha" - Bamos are forbidden nowadays, even though all of Yisrael do not enter one gate!]
(j)Question: What is R. Yehudah's source for this?
(k)Answer: He learns both of these from B'Achad [since it is no more reasonable to learn one than the other].
(l)Question: Why does R. Yosi expound like R. Shimon, and not like R. Yehudah? (This is not a difficulty, we merely want to explain his opinion.)
(m)Answer: It says "Ish l'Fi Ochlo."
(n)Question (Rav Ukva bar Chinena): Elsewhere, R. Yehudah permits slaughtering a Pesach for an individual!
1.(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): We may slaughter Pesach Rishon for a woman by herself; on Pesach Sheni, she may be part of a Chaburah.
(o)Answer (Rava): It should say, we may slaughter Pesach Rishon for women by themselves.
(p)Question (Rav Ukva - Mishnah): We do not make a Chaburah of women, slaves or children.
1.Suggestion: We do not make a Chaburah of any of them by themselves.
(q)Answer (Rava): No - we do not make a Chaburah of slaves with women or children:
1.We cannot have women and slaves together lest they sin;
2.We cannot have children and slaves together on account of homosexuality.
3)WHICH PESACHIM DO WOMEN BRING?
(a)(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): We may slaughter Pesach Rishon for a woman by herself; on Pesach Sheni, she may be part of a Chaburah.
(b)R. Yosi says, we may slaughter Pesach Sheni for a woman by herself, all the more so Pesach Rishon!
(c)R. Shimon says, on Pesach Rishon a woman may be part of a Chaburah; we do not slaughter Pesach Sheni for her at all.
(d)Question: What do they argue about?
(e)Answer: R. Yehudah expounds "B'Michsas Nefashos" - even women;
1.Suggestion: If so, the same should apply to Pesach Sheni!
2.Rejection: "Chet'o Yisa ha'Ish ha'Hu" - a man is liable if he does not bring either Pesach, but not a woman.
3.Question: If so, we should not slaughter Pesach Sheni for women at all!
4.Answer: Since it also says "K'Chol Chukas ha'Pesach Ya'asu Oso" (Pesach Sheni is just like Pesach Rishon), she can be part of a Chaburah.
(f)Question: What is R. Yosi's reason?
(g)Answer: Regarding Pesach Rishon it says "B'Michsas Nefashos" - even women;
1.Regarding Pesach Sheni it says "V'Nichresah ha'Nefesh ha'Hi" - any soul, even a woman.
2.Question: What does "Chet'o Yisa ha'Ish ha'Hu" exclude?
3.Answer: It excludes a minor [at the time of Pesach Rishon] from Kares [even if he matured before Pesach Sheni].
(h)R. Shimon argues, because it says regarding Pesach Rishon "Ish" - not a woman.
(i)Question: If so, we should not slaughter Pesach for women at all!
(j)Answer: Since it also says "B'Michsas Nefashos," she can be part of a Chaburah.
(k)Question: The same should apply to Pesach Sheni!
(l)Answer: "Chet'o Yisa ha'Ish ha'Hu" excludes women.
1.Question: From what are women excluded?
i.We need not exclude them from punishment [for not bringing Pesach Sheni] - they are not obligated to bring even Pesach Rishon!
2.Answer: It teaches that they may not bring Pesach Sheni at all.
(m)Question: From which "Ish" [regarding Pesach Rishon] does R. Shimon learn?
1.Suggestion: He learns from "Va'Yikchu Lahem Ish Seh l'Veis Avos."
2.Rejection: This is needed to teach R. Yitzchak's law, that an adult can Zocheh (acquire on behalf of others), but a minor cannot!
(n)Answer: He learns from "Ish l'Fi Ochlo."
(o)Question: Since R. Yosi holds like R. Shimon [that "Lo Suchal Lizbo'ach Es ha'Posach b'Achad" forbids slaughtering Pesach on a Bamas Yachid, R. Shimon must hold like R. Yosi [who learns from "Ish l'Fi Ochlo" that we may slaughter Pesach for an individual - otherwise, it would be better to expound "Lo Suchal...b'Achad" like R. Yehudah, to forbid slaughtering Pesach for an individual]!
(p)Answer: We could have learned from "L'Fi Ochlo" - "Ish" is extra to exclude women.
(q)Question: Like which Tana is the following?
1.(R. Elazar): Pesach Rishon is obligatory for women; Pesach Sheni is Reshus for them, and it is Docheh Shabbos.
2.Objection: If it is Reshus, it is not Docheh Shabbos!
3.Correction: Rather, Pesach Sheni is Reshus for them; Pesach Rishon is Chovah, and it is Docheh Shabbos.
(r)Answer: It is like R. Yehudah.
(s)(R. Yakov): We do not make a Chaburah entirely of converts, lest they will be too meticulous, and [improperly] consider it Pasul (Tosfos, citing Yerushalmi - lest they will not be meticulous enough, and it will become Pasul).
4)WHICH MITZVOS OF PESACH APPLY TO WOMEN?
(a)(Beraisa): Pesach, Matzah and Maror are obligatory on the first [night]; afterwards, they are Reshus;
(b)R. Shimon says, they are obligatory for men; they are Reshus for women.
(c)Question: Which of these are Reshus?
1.It cannot refer to Pesach - it applies only to the first night!
(d)Answer: Matzah and Maror are Reshus.
(e)Question (Seifa - R. Shimon): They are obligatory for men; they are Reshus for women.
1.Surely, R. Shimon agrees with R. Elazar's law!
2.(R. Elazar): Mid'Oraisa, women are commanded to eat Matzah - "Lo Sochal Alav Chametz Shiv'as Yomim Tochal Alav Matzos":
i.Whoever is forbidden to eat Chametz is commanded to eat Matzah - since Chametz is forbidden to women, they are commanded to eat Matzah.
(f)Answer: It means, Pesach, Matzah and Maror are obligatory on the first [night]; afterwards, they (Matzah and Maror) are Reshus;
(g)R. Shimon says, Pesach is obligatory for men; it is Reshus for women.