OUTLINES OF HALACHOS FROM THE DAF
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
1) THE LAST FOOD EATEN ON SEDER NIGHT - see Pesachim 120
2) EATING MATZAH WITH MAROR [Matzah and Maror:eating]
1. Rav Mesharshiya brei d'Rav Noson: Hillel had a
tradition that after the Churban one should not eat
Matzah and Maror wrapped together. Since Matzah is a
Mitzvah mid'Oraisa and Maror is only mid'Rabanan,
Maror is Mevatel Matzah.
2. Even the opinion that Mitzvos do not Mevatel each
other says this only when both are mid'Oraisa or
both are mid'Rabanan. However, if one is mid'Oraisa
and the other is mid'Rabanan, the mid'Rabanan is
Mevatel the mid'Oraisa.
3. Question: Who says that Mitzvos do not Mevatel each
4. Answer: Hillel says so. He used to wrap them
(Pesach, Matzah and Maror) together and eat them to
fulfill "Al Matzos u'Morerim Yochluhu".
i. Question: Surely, a k'Zayis of each is required
- but one cannot swallow more than two k'Zeisim
at a time (Kerisus 14a)!
5. R. Yochanan: Hillel's colleagues disagree:
ii. Answer (Mordechai 38b DH Korchan): He puts a
k'Zayis of each in his mouth. They get mashed
during chewing to the size of an egg (or less),
and one can swallow them at once.
i. (Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps one wraps them
together and eats them like Hillel did!
6. Objection (Rav Ashi): If so, why does it say even?
ii. Rejection: "Al Matzos u'Morerim Yochluhu" (it
could have said 'Yochlu' - rather, it says
Yochluhu, we read this 'Yochal Hu'), one may
even eat each by itself.
7. Answer (Rav Ashi): Rather, the Beraisa means as
i. Suggestion: Perhaps one must wrap them
together like Hillel did to be Yotzei!
8. Conclusion: The Halachah was not fixed like Hillel,
nor like Chachamim - [nowadays] we bless Al Achilas
Matzah, eat Matzah, bless Al Achilas Maror, eat
Maror, and then eat Korech (both wrapped together)
without a Berachah, to commemorate when there is a
Mikdash, according to Hillel.
ii. Rejection: "Al Matzos u'Morerim Yochluhu" - one
may even eat each by itself.
9. Rav Papa: One should not leave the Charoses on the
Maror, lest its sweetness (it is made with apples)
blunt the bitterness of the Maror (one must taste
Maror to be Yotzei).
1. Rif and Rosh (10:27): Hillel taught that nowadays,
if one eats Matzah and Maror wrapped together, Maror
is Mevatel Matzah. All agree that a Mitzvah
mid'Rabanan is Mevatel a Mitzvah mid'Oraisa.
(a) (Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps one is not Yotzei unless he
wraps them together and eats them like Hillel did!
i. R. Yochanan: Hillel used to wrap them together
and eat them to fulfill "Al Matzos u'Morerim
Yochluhu"; his colleagues disagree.
(b) Rejection: "Al Matzos u'Morerim Yochluhu", one may even
eat each by itself.
(a) First one blesses Al Achilas Matzah and eats Matzah;
ii. Conclusion: The Halachah was not fixed like
Hillel, nor like Chachamim. Nowadays we want to
eat both together, to recall the Mikdash; we
also must eat each by itself, for otherwise
Maror mid'Rabanan would Mevatel Matzah
(b) Then he blesses Al Achilas Maror and eats Maror;
(c) Then he eats both together without a Berachah, to
commemorate the Mikdash according to Hillel.
(a) Note: The Gemara says that Hillel wrapped them
together; it does not specify whether or not this
includes the Pesach. It says "*Al* Matzos u'Merorim
Yochluhu"; R. Yochanan (Pesachim 63b) holds that 'Al'
does not connote nearby. Also, perhaps the Mordechai's
question above bothered the Rambam, and he did not accept
the answer because he holds that one must swallow a
k'Zayis of each. The Yerushalmi (Chalah 2b) explicitly
says that Hillel ate all three together. However, the
Yerushalmi was forced to say so because it holds (unlike
the Bavli) that Bitul applies only if there are at least
iii. Question (Ba'al ha'Ma'or): The Rif says that
the Beraisa proves R. Yochanan's assertion that
Chachamim argue with Hillel. But the conclusion
was like Rav Ashi, that the Beraisa is like
Hillel! It teaches that one need not eat them
wrapped together, but one may do so! Rather, R.
Yochanan must have had a tradition that
Chachamim argue with Hillel.
2. Rosh (ibid.): We dip Korech in Charoses, for this is
the only time Hillel would dip in Charoses.
iv. Answer (Milchamos Hash-m): In the Ba'al
ha'Ma'or's text, Rav Ashi explicitly
establishes the Beraisa like Hillel. However,
the correct text does not. It cannot be like
Hillel, for it says 'perhaps one must do like
Hillel used to do'. According to Hillel, this
is how the Torah requires! Rav Ashi does not
argue with R. Yochanan. Rather, he refutes the
Gemara's assertion that there is an opinion
that Mitzvos (mid'Oraisa) Mevatel each other.
The Beraisa is like Chachamim, and they agree
that one is Yotzei by eating them together!
They argue only about whether or not the verse
requires eating them together.
v. Question: Perhaps Hillel holds that normally
Mitzvos Mevatel each other; here is different,
because the Torah commanded to eat them
together! Chachamim hold that Mitzvos Mevatel
each other, yet they agree that if one ate them
together he was Yotzei!
vi. Answer (Tosfos): If Hillel held that normally
Mitzvos Mevatel each other, he would need the
verse to permit eating them together, he would
have no source to require this l'Chatchilah.
i. Question: The Gemara implies that had the
Halachah been fixed like either opinion, we
would act differently. But this is not so!
Hillel agrees that nowadays we cannot eat them
together, for Maror would Mevatel Matzah!
3. Rambam (Hilchos Chametz u'Matzah 8:6): One takes two
Matzos, breaks one, puts the piece inside the whole
Matzah and blesses ha'Motzi. Afterwards he wraps
Matzah and Maror together and blesses 'Al Achilas
Matzos u'Morerim' and eats them. If he ate each of
them by itself he blesses on each of them by itself.
ii. Answer (Rosh ibid.): If the Halachah would be
like Hillel, we would bless on Matzah and eat
it, then bless on Maror and eat it with Matzah.
Since Maror and Korech are both mid'Rabanan,
they do not Mevatel each other.
iii. Question: If (according to the Rif) Chachamim
agree that equal Mitzvos do not Mevatel each
other, we should be able to do so according to
everyone! Why must we eat Maror by itself?
iv. Answer (Rosh ibid. and Milchamos Hash-m):
Perhaps the Halachah follows Chachamim; they
hold that Korech is Reshus (not a Mitzvah at
all), it would be Mevatel Maror (a Mitzvah
mid'Rabanan), just like a mid'Rabanan is
Mevatel a mid'Oraisa.
i. Magid Mishnah: This is when there is a Mikdash,
and Matzah and Maror are both mid'Oraisa, so
neither is Mevatel the other.
ii. Question (Lechem Mishneh): Since the Gemara
said that the Halachah was not decided like
Hillel or Chachamim, we should be stringent to
eat both ways! Also, to be concerned for
Hillel, the Pesach must also be eaten with
iii. Answer (Griz Zevachim 79a DH bi'Gemara k'Shem):
The Rambam holds that Korech consisted only of
Matzah and Maror.
4. Rambam (ibid. 8:8): Nowadays one blesses ha'Motzi
and Al Achilas Matzah, dips the Matzah in Charoses
and eats it. Then he blesses Al Achilas Maror, dips
the Maror in Charoses but does not leave it in very
long, and eats it. This is a Mitzvah mid'Rabanan.
(a) To answer Question (ii) the Ramban can say that Matzah
made of rice and grain is one entity (they were mixed
before it received the name Matzah, at the time of
baking), so it is considered doing the Mitzvah by itself.
ix. Griz (Zevachim ibid.): We are concerned for
Bitul of the Mitzvah, not of the taste!
Nevertheless, if one can taste the Matzah he is
Yotzei because Ta'am k'Ikar.
x. Question Griz (ibid.): In Zevachim, Rashi says
that Hillel teaches that we are not concerned
lest Maror Mevatel the taste of Matzah. Why
doesn't he address Bitul of the Pesach? Rashi
holds that Pesach is eaten together with Matzah
i. R. Mano'ach (DH v'Lo): Even though it is a
Mitzvah mid'Rabanan to dip in Charoses, since
the Torah mentions Maror but not Charoses,
Maror is like mid'Oraisa compared to Charoses.
Therefore, the Charoses would Mevatel the Maror
if the Maror was left in for a while. We are
not concerned lest Charoses Mevatel the Matzah
because one need not taste the Matzah.
Alternatively, Matzah is dry and it does not
absorb much taste.
ii. Question: If Matzah is made from rice and
grain, we do not say that rice of Reshus is
Mevatel grain of Mitzvah (Zevachim 78a)!
iii. Answer #1 (R. David DH v'Ifshar): We are
concerned lest there will be enough Maror to
Mevatel the taste of Matzah. Alternatively,
perhaps the Maror will be a Chatzitzah between
the Matzah and his throat.
iv. Answer #2 (R. David ibid. and Tosfos Zevachim
78a DH Ela): Maror is Mevatel Matzah, for its
taste is potent. Alternatively, Maror is
Mevatel some taste of the k'Zayis of Matzah; if
the Korech contains a larger Shi'ur of Matzah,
one is Yotzei.
v. Question (Gilyon ha'Shas Zevachim ibid.):
Nowadays, after eating Matzah by itself we eat
Maror by itself. We do not eat it with Matzah,
for then Matzah is Reshus and it would Mevatel
Maror, even though Matzah's taste is not
vi. Answer #1: Keren Orah (Zevachim 78a DH v'Ein):
Chachamim hold that Mitzvos Mevatel each other.
Regarding Min b'Mino, the minority is Batel,
one was not Yotzei that Mitzvah. Regarding Min
b'Eino Mino, if each can be tasted neither is
Batel. However, l'Chatchilah they should be
vii. Answer #2 (Magihah in R. David, 19): Since
there is a Mitzvah to taste the Maror, we are
concerned even for a slight blunting of its
viii.Answer #3 (Maharam Chalavah citing Ramban):
Here, we do not discuss Bitul of taste. Rather,
it was enacted to do each Mitzvah by itself.
(a) Note: Rashba (Berachos 38b DH Lo) proves from the law of
Bitul that we require the taste of Matzah. Perhaps Rashi
holds that we learn from a Hekesh to Maror (reason
dictates that taste of Maror is required), but we do not
require the taste of Pesach. Alternatively, he teaches
that Maror is not Mevatel Matzah, and all the more so it
is not Mevatel Pesach, for meat has a more potent taste
1. Shulchan Aruch (OC 475 1): One holds together the
three Matzos with the broken one in the middle,
blesses ha'Motzi and Al Achilas Matzah...and eats a
k'Zayis from each.
i. Magen Avraham (4): One should put a k'Zayis of
each in his mouth at once, but it suffices to
swallow a k'Zayis at once. (We learn from the
Mordechai cited above (a:4:ii).) B'Di'eved,
even if a k'Zayis was swallowed within Kdei
Achilas Pras he was Yotzei. If it is hard to
swallow a k'Zayis of Maror at once,
l'Chatchilah one may swallow it within Kdei
2. Afterwards he fully submerges a k'Zayis of Maror in
Charoses but does not leave it in very long, lest it
lose its bitterness. For this reason one must shake
the Charoses off. He blesses Al Achilas Maror and
eats it without reclining. Afterwards he cuts the
bottom Matzah and wraps a piece together with Maror
and dips them in Charoses.
3. Rema: Some say not to dip them; this is our custom.
i. Hagahos Maimoniyos (Hilchos Chametz u'Matzah
8:7): The first opinion holds that we dip
Korech in Charoses like Hillel used to. The
latter opinion holds that we dip in Charoses to
counter Kapa (a worm or venom), and there is no
concern for Kapa regarding anything eaten with
4. Shulchan Aruch (ibid.): He says 'Zecher l'Mikdash,
according to Hillel' and eats them together while
i. Magen Avraham (8): If it is not difficult, one
should swallow both k'Zeisim together.
5. Shulchan Aruch (ibid.): From the time he blesses Al
Achilas Matzah he should not talk about matters
unrelated to the meal until Korech, in order that
the Berachos of Al Achilas Matzah and Al Achilas
Maror will also apply to Korech.
i. Taz (7): We are concerned for Hillel's opinion;
Hillel holds that one is not Yotzei until
ii. Mishbetzos Zahav (7): The Bach says that when
there is no Pesach, there is no Mitzvah of
Korech even mid'Rabanan, it is a mere
commemoration. This is like Rashi. However,
Tosfos holds that according to Hillel it is a
iii. Question: Since it is a Safek (whom the
Halachah follows) regarding a mid'Rabanan, it
should suffice to fulfill one opinion,
especially since Hillel agrees that one is
Yotzei b'Di'eved by eating each by itself
(according to Ba'al ha'Ma'or).
iv. Answer (Mishbetzos Zahav ibid.): Indeed, we
hold that the Halachah follows Hillel; we are
merely stringent to also be concerned for
v. Bi'ur Halachah (v'Omer): Presumably, the
Mechaber does not mean that one should say
'Zecher l'Mikdash...' before beginning to eat
it, for this is a Hefsek!
vi. Kaf ha'Chayim (8,19): One should intend that Al
Achilas Matzah also apply to the Afikoman. As
long as one began to eat before talking, he
need not repeat the Berachah even if he talked
before finishing a k'Zayis.
Index to Halachah Outlines for Maseches Pesachim