Gemara 118a [line 23]:
The words "Amar Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah Kashin Nekavav..."
should be "Amar Rav Sheshes Mishum Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah Kashin Nekavav..."
This is the Girsa in the manuscripts, and explains why the Gemara brings the next two Sugyos (Dikdukei Sofrim #3)
 Gemara 118b [line 29]:
The words "a'Gevuros v'Nifla'os d'Avid b'Hadaihu, Kol she'Ken..."
should be "a'Gevuros v'Nifla'os d'Avid, Kol she'Ken..."
This is the Girsa of the manuscripts (Dikdukei Sofrim #4)
 Gemara 118b [line 33]:
The words "Lo Kol she'Ken? Amar Lo ha'Kadosh Baruch Hu Kabel Mehem; Miyad..."
should be "Lo Kol she'Ken? Miyad..."
This is the Girsa of the manuscripts (Dikdukei Sofrim #9)
 Gemara 118b [last line]:
The words "Lo Ye'atzar, Zeh Beis Otzar"
should be "Lo Ye'atzar, Zeh Beis Otzeroseihen"
This is the Girsa of the manuscripts and of the Rashbam (Dikdukei Sofrim #1)
1) [line 1] YEHALELUCHA HASH-M ELOKEINU ... - this is the closing paragraph of Halel
2) [line 2] NISHMAS KOL CHAI - the Tefilah of Nishmas Kol Chai [as well, as our Mishnah differentiates between the regular recitation of Halel and that of Seder night]
3) [line 5] ME"HODU" AD "NAHAROS BAVEL" - that is, Tehilim chapter 136. We recite this chapter in Pesukei d'Zimrah on Shabbos and Yom Tov; it consists of 26 praiseworthy actions of HaSh-m followed by the words "Ki l'Olam Chasdo."
4) [line 6] MI"SHIR HA'MA'ALOS" AD "NAHAROS BAVEL" - that is, Tehilim chapters 134-136
5) [line 7] "MI"KI YAKOV BACHAR LO Y-H" AD "NAHAROS BAVEL" - that is, from Tehilim chapter 135:4 through chapter 136
*6*) [line 9] SHE'HKB"H YOSHEV B'RUMO SHEL OLAM U'MECHALEK MEZONOS L'CHOL BERYAH - for HaSh-m sits at the zenith of the heavens and distributes sustenance to all of his creatures. This idea is mentioned in chapter 136:25: "He gives sustenance to all flesh, for his kindness is forever." It is due to the mention of this central principle that this chapter is called "Halel ha'Gadol."
7) [line 12] B'CHASDO - in his kindness [although they had done nothing to justify it]
8) [line 13] SHE'GOVAH CHOVASO SHEL ADAM B'TOVASO - the manner in which one has an obligation [to thank HaSh-m] is [dependant upon] the way in which HaSh-m favors him
9a) [line 13] B'SHORO - with his ox
b) [line 13] B'SEIYO - with his sheep (i.e., with his poverty, which atones for his transgressions; RASHBAM)
10a) [line 15] "[HARBAH ARBEH ITZEVONECH V'HERONECH,] B'ETZEV [TELDI VANIM]" - "I will greatly increase your anguish and your pregnancy; with anguish shall you give birth to children" (Bereishis 3:16). This was part of the curse placed upon Chava as punishment for eating from the Etz ha'Da'as.
b) [line 15] "[ARURAH HA'ADAMAH BA'AVURECHA,] B'ITZAVON [TOCHELENAH KOL YEMEI CHAYECHA]" - "The ground is cursed because of you, you eat from it with anguish all the days of your life." (Bereishis 3:17). This was part of the curse placed upon Adam ha'Rishon as punishment for eating from the Etz ha'Da'as. The word "b'Itzavon" is a stronger form of the word for "Etzev"; the RASHBAM states that it connotes double the anguish (see RASHASH).
11) [line 18] "V'KOTZ V'DARDAR TATZMI'ACH LACH, [V'ACHALTA ES ESEV HA'SADEH]" - "And it will grow thorn and thistle for you, [and you shall eat the grass of the field]" (Bereishis 3:18). This is the continuation of the previously quoted verse.
12) [line 19] B'EVUS ECHAD? - from one trough?
13) [line 20] NISKARERA DA'TO - lit. his mind cooled; he calmed down
14a) [line 20] ASHREINU IM AMADNU BA'RISHONAH - (a) we would have been fortunate to have been alive prior to the sin of Adam ha'Rishon (MAHARSHA); (b) according to the Girsa ASHREINU SHE'LO AMADNU BA'RISHONAH - we are fortunate not to have been alive when Adam ha'Rishon sinned and was punished
b) [line 21] V'ADAYIN LO PALTINAN MINAH - (a) and we have still not completely left the splendor of that period [as there are plants which are edible as they grow, without requiring any toil] (MAHARSHA); (b) according to the other Girsa - we still have not entirely escaped the punishment [for those plants that we eat require much toil]
15) [line 21] ISBEI D'DABRA - plants of the field
*16*) [line 22] KASHIN ... K'KRI'AS YAM SUF - This does not mean, G-d forbid, that there is something which is "difficult" for HaSh-m. Rather, the idea expressed in our Gemara is that these phenomena require as great a miracle as that which was required for the splitting of the Reed Sea. The reason why it is important for us to know this is in order that we realize how important it is to pray for their successful outcome (RASHBAM).
17) [line 23] GOZER - slice
18) [line 23] NEKAVAV SHEL ADAM - the holes of man; that is, the process through which one excretes waste from his body [when he is constipated]
19) [line 24] "MIHAR TZO'EH L'HIPASE'ACH, [V'LO YAMUS LA'SHACHAS; V'LO YECHSAR LACHMO. V'ANOCHI HASH-M ELOKECHA ROGA YAM VA'YEHEMU GALAV ...]" - "The wanderer will soon be released, and will not die in the pit; nor will his bread be lacking. And I am HaSh-m your G-d, who agitates the sea and churns its waves ..." (Yeshayah 51:14). Our Gemara understands the word "Tzo'eh" not as "wanderer," but rather "bound" -- referring to one who is constipated.
20) [line 25] KOL HA'MEVAZEH ES HA'MO'ADOS - anyone who embarrasses the festivals [by performing prohibited work on Chol ha'Mo'ed]
21) [line 29] "LO SISA SHEMA SHAV," V'KARI BEI LO SASI - "Do not carry false hearsay" (Shemos 23:1); read it as "Do not cause false hearsay to be carried." (The RASHBAM says that the words "v'Kari Bei Lo Sasi" are unnecessary.)
22) [line 30] HAI - this [Halel, which we recite on festivals]
23) [line 32] CHEVLO - birth pangs
24) [line 33] K'EILIM - like rams
25) [line 36] MILCHEMES GOG U'MAGOG
(a) Magog is one of the sons of Yefes son of Noach (Bereishis 10:2). The prophet Yechezkel (chapters 38-39) describes a cataclysmic war lead by Gog from the land of Magog, wherein many nations combine forces to wage war against Eretz Yisrael. The prophet assures Gog that HaSh-m Himself will undermine the war effort and destroy all of his forces.
(b) We have a tradition that this war will occur at the end of days, preceding the revelation of HaSh-m as Master of the world.
26) [line 37] MILUT - the escape
27) [line 38] YERIDASAN SHEL TZADIKIM L'KIVSHAN HA'ESH - (see Background to 117:28]
*28*) [line 43] GAVRIEL AMRO - Nevuchadnetzar observed a fourth individual in the furnace along with Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah, whose "appearance was as that of an angel" (Daniel 3:25). This was the Mal'ach Gavriel. Our Gemara explains that HaSh-m sent Gavriel in fulfillment of a promise made centuries earlier; hence, Gavriel exclaimed, "HaSh-m is true forever!"
*29*) [line 43] NIMROD - Nimrod was a mighty king who ruled Babylonia from soon after the flood in the times of Noach until he was killed by Esav on the day that Avraham Avinu died. He was a staunch idol-worshipper, and instigated the building of Tower of Babel. When Terach, father of Avraham, found that his son rejected graven images, he brought him to judgement in front of King Nimrod. Nimrod ordered that Avraham be thrown into a fiery furnace, which he miraculously survived. It was for this reason that Nimrod was called Amrafel the king of Shin'ar (Bereishis 14:1). Amrafel is a contraction of "Amar Pol" - "he said [to Avraham], fall [into the furnace]" (RASHI ibid.; RASHABM).
30) [line 44] ATZANEN - I will cool [the furnace]
31) [line 46] EINO MEKAPE'ACH SECHAR KOL BERYAH - does not withhold reward from any creature
32) [line 48] YORKEMU SAR HA'BARAD - Yorkemu, the angel appointed over hail
33) [line 1] AKDI'ACH MIB'CHUTZ - I will overheat the outside [resulting in the fiery death of those who threw Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah into the flames (Daniel 3:22)]
34) [line 5] SHEB'OSO HA'DOR - of that generation (that of those who left Mitzrayim)
35) [line 5] MI'KETANEI AMANAH HAYU - were weak in their belief [in HaSh-m]
36) [line 6] "VA'YAMRU AL YAM B'YAM SUF" - "and they rebelled (lit. exchanged) at the sea, at the Reed Sea" (Tehilim 106:7).
37) [line 9] SAR SHEL YAM - the angel appointed over the sea
38) [line 10] PELOT - spit out
39) [line 11] MATANAH - a present [of food for the fish in the sea]
40) [line 13] NACHAL KISHON (MILCHEMES SISRA) - see Background to 117:26
41) [line 13] AREV - a guarantor
42) [line 15] B'DAKREI D'FARZELA - in iron chariots
43a) [line 16] MI'MESILOSAM - from their orbits
b) [line 16] "MIN SHAMAYIM NILCHAMU; HA'KOCHAVIM [MI'MESILOSAM NILCHAMU IM SISRA]" - "From heaven they fought; the stars from their orbits did battle with Sisra" (Shoftim 5:20).
44) [line 17] NECHISU - they rested
45) [line 17] AKDIRU - were burned
46) [line 18] L'AKRUREI L'MISCHI NAFSHAIHU - to cool off [and] to douse themselves
47a) [line 19] GERAFAM - swept them away
b) [line 19] "NACHAL KISHON GERAFAM -- NACHAL KEDUMIM, NACHAL KISHON; TIDRECHI NAFSHI OZ" - Nachal Kishon swept them away -- the ancient stream, Nachal Kishon; but I trod upon it vigorously." (Shoftim 5:21)
48) [line 21] "MOSHIVI" - He places
49a) [line 22] AMRAH KENESES YISRAEL - [the distinguished elders of] the nation of Yisrael said [regarding the less distinguished among them]
b) [line 22] SAMUNI BANAYICH KA'CHULDAH ZU - Your sons, due to their sins, have placed me as a marten (alt. weasel)
b) [line 23] HA'DARAH B'IKAREI BATIM - which dwells in the foundations of houses
50) [line 25] "DALOSI V'LI YEHOSHI'A" - "I was brought low, but He saved me" (Tehilim 116:6). The Gemara interprets "Dalosi" as "I am impoverished [of Mitzvos]."
51a) [line 28] "HALELU ES HASH-M KOL GOYIM [... KI GAVAR ALEINU CHASDO]" - "All nations praise HaSh-m [... for his kindness has strengthened upon us]" (Tehilim 117:1).
b) [line 28] UMOS HA'OLAM MAI AVIDTAIHU? - What business do the nations of the world have [praising HaSh-m for the kindness he has shown to us]?
52) [line 30] KASAVUR - he will think
53) [line 32] "YE'ESAYU CHASHMANIM MINI MITZRAYIM, KUSH TARITZ YADAV LEILO-KIM" - "They will bring gifts from Egypt; Kush (a kingdom comprising modern-day Ethiopia and Sudan) shall quickly hand [gifts] to El-kim" (Tehilim 68:32)
54) [line 36] "GE'AR CHAYAS KANEH, ADAS ABIRIM B'EGLEI AMIM, MISRAPES B'RATZEI CHASEF, BIZAR AMIM KERAVOS YECHPATZU" - "Destroy the beast of the reeds, the assembly of mighty ones among the calves of nations, who ingratiates himself for pieces of silver; who scatter nations and desires battles" (Tehilim 68:31). The Gemara first reads the first four words of the verse as "Ge'ar Chayas, Kaneh Adas," meaning "Destroy the [Roman] beast [of Esav], and take for Yourself the community [of Yisrael]."
55) [line 37] HA'KANIM - the reeds; here, a forest
56) [line 37] "YECHARSEMENAH CHAZIR MI'YA'AR, V'ZIZ SADAI TIR'ENAH" - "The boar of the forest (Esav) ravages it, and the prowlers of the field feed upon it." (Tehilim 80:14)
*57*) [line 38] SHE'KOL MA'ASEHA NICHTAVIN B'KULMUS ECHAD - all of whose actions are written with a single quill, i.e., whose actions are all concentrated toward the singular goal of harming Klal Yisrael. This interpretation is based upon the use of the word Kaneh, a reed used in fashioning a Kulmus, in the singular form.
58a) [line 40] L'KABEL MAMON -to accept bribes
b) [line 40] RETZON BE'ALIM - the conditions stipulated by those who extended the bribes
59) [line 41] KEREIVOS - closeness [with -- i.e., assimilation into -- the surrounding nations
60) [line 42] SHEVAKIM - marketplaces
61) [line 43] BIRANIYOS - towers
62) [line 44] MA'ALOS - stairs
63) [line 46] HANEI L'MAN - for whom are these [treasures]?
64) [line 46] "[V'HAYAH] SACHRAH V'ESNANAH KODESH LA'SH-M, LO YE'ATZER V'LO YECHASEN; KI LA'YOSHVIM LIFNEI HASH-M YIHEYEH SACHRAH, L'ECHOL L'SAV'AH VILI'MECHASEH ASIK" - "And her merchandise and harlot's wages will become holy to HaSh-m, it shall be neither stored nor accumulated; for her merchandise will belong to those who sit before HaSh-m, to eat their fill [from it] and for elegant clothing"(Yeshayah 23:18).
65a) [last line] BEIS OTZAR - a silo [in which produce is stored]
b) [last line] BEIS GENIZAH - a vault [in which valuables are stored]
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