[68a - 54 lines; 68b - 54 lines]

1)[line 1]בועל נדהBO'EL NIDAH

(a)One who has intimate relations with a Nidah becomes Tamei for seven days, similar to the Nidah herself. His Tum'ah, however, is less stringent. Any object which comes into contact with him (Maga'o), as well as any object underneath him (Tachtono), gain the same status of an object which lies *above* a Nidah (Elyonah); namely, that of a Rishon l'Tum'ah (Vayikra 15:24; see Nidah 33a, and Charts to Nidah 33:8b). After seven days, he immerses in a Mikvah during the daytime in order to complete his purification process.

2)[line 5]מידי איריא? הא כדאיתא והא כדאיתא!MIDI IRYA? HA KED'ISA V'HA KED'ISA!- is this a proof? This [case] is unique unto itself, and the other is unique unto itself!

3)[line 11]ונכנס למחנה זבV'NICHNAS L'MACHANEH ZAV- and he may enter the Machaneh [Leviyah] which the Zav may enter [only, as opposed to the Machaneh Shechinah into which a Temei Mes may enter as well]

4)[line 14]"[כי יהיה בך איש אשר לא יהיה טהור מקרה לילה] ויצא אל מחוץ למחנה לא יבא אל תוך המחנה""[KI YIHEYEH BECHA ISH ASHER LO YIHEYEH TAHOR MIKREH LAILAH,] V'YATZA EL MI'CHUTZ LA'MACHANEH, LO YAVO EL TOCH HA'MACHANEH"- "[If there should be among you a man who is impure due to a happening in the night (that is, a seminal emission),] he shall leave the encampment; he may not come into the encampment." (Devarim 23:11)

5a)[line 17]אכתי לא עיילתיה אפיקתיה?AKATI LO AYALTEI, APIKTEI?- [the Torah] has not yet discussed the entrance [of the Ba'al Keri into Machaneh Leviyah; why then would it then speak about him as if] he has already left?

b)[line 18]אכתי לא אפיקתיה עיילתיה?AKATI LO APIKTEI, AYALTEI?- [the Torah] has not yet commanded [the Ba'al Keri] to leave [Machaneh Leviyah; does it already exhort them] not to enter*?

6)[line 23]...ולא יבא אל תוך המחנה למה לי...LO YAVO EL TOCH HA'MACHANEH LAMAH LI?- i.e., why is it necessary for the Torah to repeat the word "Machaneh"?

7)[line 26]שמנקבן בסכיןSHE'MENAKVAN B'SAKIN- that he pierces them (the entrails) with a knife [so that the excrement will fall out. Were it to remain, the entrails would spoil before nightfall.]

8a)[line 27]שירקא דמעייאSHIRKA D'MEI'AYA- [the removal of] the fatty film attached to the entrails

b)[line 27]דנפקא אגב דוחקא דסכינאD'NAFKA AGAV DUCHKA D'SAKINA- which comes out [only] through the pressure of a knife [(O.F. limon) mud, slime]

9)[line 29]"[ורעו כבשים כדברם] וחרבות מחים גרים יאכלו""[V'RA'U CHEVASIM K'DAVRAM,] V'CHARVOS MECHIM GARIM YOCHELU."- "[Then the lambs shall graze as is their custom,] and strangers shall feed on the ruins of fat ones." (Yeshayah 5:17)

10)[line 31]צדיקיא יחסנוןTZADIKAYA YACHSENUN- the righteous shall inherit

11)[line 32]כמדובר בםK'MEDUBAR BAM- as was promised to them

12)[line 37]כדרב חננאל אמר רבKED'RAV CHANANEL AMAR RAV- Rav Chananel Amar Rav explains "k'Medubar Bam" to mean "as was said about them," i.e., Eliyahu and Elisha. He knows the reference to be to them as he learns a Gezeirah Shavah from the words "v'Ra'u" and "Yir'u."

13)[line 40]"[רעה עמך בשבטך צאן נחלתך שכני לבדד יער בתוך כרמל] ירעו בשן וגלעד כימי עולם"""[RE'EH AMECHA V'SHIVTECHA, TZON NACHALASECHA, SHOCHNI LEVADAD YA'AR B'SOCH KARMEL,] YIR'U VASHAN V'GIL'AD K'YEMEI OLAM."- "[Shepherd Your people with Your staff -- the flock of Your heritage -- who dwell alone in the wood in the midst of Carmel.] Let them graze in Bashan and Gil'ad, as in the days of old." (Michah 7:14) - Rav Chananel Amar Rav goes on to explain that Bashan refers to Elisha, the son of Shafat from Bashan (Divrei ha'Yamim I 5:12), and Gil'ad to Eliyahu, who came from the land of Gil'ad (Melachim I 17:11).

14)[line 42]"[ויאמר יהושפט האין פה נביא לה' ונדרשה את ה' מאותו ויען אחד מעבדי מלך ישראל ויאמר] פה אלישע בן שפט אשר יצק מים על ידי אליהו""[VA'YOMER YEHOSHAFAT, 'HA'EIN POH NAVI LA'HASH-M V'NIDRESHAH ES HASH-M ME'OSO?' VAYA'AN ECHAD ME'AVDEI MELECH YISRAEL VA'YOMER,] 'POH ELISHA BEN SHAFAT ASHER YATZAK MAYIM AL YEDEI ELIYAHU!'" - "[And Yehoshafat said, 'Is there no Navi of HaSh-m here, from whom we can consult HaSh-m?' And one of the servants of the king of Yisrael spoke up and said,] 'Elisha ben Shafat is here, who poured water at the command of Eliyahu!'" (Melachim II 3:11) (WHEN ELISHA'S FINGER TURNED INTO A WATER-FOUNTAIN)

(a)Some years earlier, Eliyahu ha'Navi gathered all the people on Mount Carmel to witness his confrontation with the prophets of Ba'al (as described in Melachim I 18; see Background to Berachos 6:28). He repaired the demolished Mizbe'ach of HaSh-m, and his plan was to sacrifice on it one of two twin bull which, he hoped, would be consumed by Divine fire before the eyes of all those present, a proof that HaSh-m is the One and only G-d.

(b)In order to magnify the miracle, after he slaughtered the bull and placed it on the pile of wood on the Mizbe'ach he saturated it -- together with the wood and the Mizbe'ach -- until the entire surrounding ditch was filled with water. The verse there mentions four jugs of water, but the Medrash explains that Elisha, the disciple of Eliyahu, stretched out his hand and his extended finger turned into a fountain from which water spouted until the ditch was full (there was a terrible famine in progress at the time, and no water was to be found).

(c)Now, King Yehoram, who followed the ways of his wicked father Achav, joined forces with the king of Edom and with his brother-in-law, the righteous Yehoshafat, and set out to attack Meisha, the king of Mo'av. Mo'av, a vassal state of Yisrael, had been paying a heavy annual tax. However, upon the death of Achav, Meisha broke away from Yisrael and ceased paying the tax.

(d)They decided to travel the route of the desert of Edom, but on the way they ran out of water and found themselves without a drop for the soldiers or for the animals. Yehoram began to lament that HaSh-m had gathered these three kings together in order to deliver them into the hands of Mo'av, but Yehoshafat asked whether there was a Navi in the vicinity. When one of the servants of the king of Yisrael mentioned Elisha, he persuaded Yehoram to consult him for advice.

(e)The Navi was duly summoned. Initially, he asked Yehoram why he did not rather consult the prophets of his evil father Achav and of his evil mother Izevel (the prophets of Ba'al). When the king reiterated his earlier fears, Elisha replied with the above verse. After asking for a minstrel to play music to dispel his anger (because prophecy requires Simchah), Elisha promised him salvation. The valley before them would bring forth pools of water, sufficient to supply his entire army as well as the animals.

(f)It is no wonder that when they were afraid of dying of thirst, the soldier referred Yehoram specifically to Elisha. He knew that if anyone would be able to perform a miracle with water, it would be Elisha.

15)[line 43]"ויאמר אליהו התשבי מתשבי גלעד [אל אחאב חי ה' אלקי ישראל אשר עמדתי לפניו אם יהיה השנים האלה טל ומטר כי אם לפי דברי]""VA'YOMER ELIYAHU HA'TISHBI MI'TOSHVEI GIL'AD [EL ACHAV, 'CHAI HASH-M ELOKEI YISRAEL ASHER AMADTI LEFANAV IM YIHEYEH HA'SHANIM HA'ELEH TAL U'MATAR KI IM LEFI DEVARAI.']"- "And Eliyahu ha'Tishbi, a resident of Gil'ad, said [to Achav, 'I swear by the life of HaSh-m the G-d of Yisrael, before Whom I stood, that there will be no dew and rain during these years, except through my command.']" (Melachim I 17:1) (ELIYAHU TAKES CHARGE OF THE KEY TO RAIN)

(a)This episode follows a meeting that took place between Eliyahu and Achav in the house of Chi'el of Beis El, where they had both arrived to comfort Chi'el on the loss of his youngest son.

(b)Many years earlier, Yehoshua had decreed that whoever rebuilds Yericho (the first town to be captured during the conquest of Kena'an) would lose his firstborn son when placing the corner-stone, and would lose his youngest son when building the door of the city. Chi'el was the first person to transgress Yehoshua's decree, and now his youngest son had just died.

(c)Achav expressed surprise, however, that the curse of the Talmid (Yehoshua) came true, whereas that of the Rebbi (HaSh-m, who wrote in the Torah that if Yisrael practiced idolatry (which his current generation did), then they would be punished) had not.

(d)Eliyahu took upon himself to sanctify HaSh-m's Name, and he decreed that no rain would fall until he rescinded the decree.

(e)Following this episode, HaSh-m ordered Eliyahu to turn eastwards and to go and hide beside the River K'ris, near the Jordan River, to escape Achav's wrath.

16)[line 44]"עוד ישבו זקנים וזקנות ברחובות ירושלים ואיש משענתו בידו מרוב ימים""OD YESHVU ZEKENIM U'ZEKENOS BI'RECHOVOS YERUSHALAYIM, V'ISH MISH'ANTO B'YADO ME'ROV YAMIM."- "Old men and old women will yet sit in the streets of Yerushalayim, and every man will have his staff in his hand due to old age." (Zecharyah 8:4)

17)[line 45]"[ויאמר לגיחזי חגר מתניך וקח משענתי בידך ולך כי תמצא איש לא תברכנו וכי יברכך איש לא תעננו] ושמת משענתי על פני הנער""[VA'YOMER L'GECHAZI, 'CHAGOR MASNECHA V'KACH MISH'ANTI B'YADCHA VA'LECH; KI SIMTZA ISH LO SEVARCHENU, V'CHI YEVARECHECHA ISH LO SA'ANENU], V'SAMTA MISH'ANTI AL PNEI HA'NA'AR.'" - "[And he (Elisha) said to Gechazi, 'Gird your loins, take my staff in your hand and go; if you meet a man do not greet him, and if a man greets you do not answer him,] and place my staff on the boy's face.'" (Melachim I 4:29) (ELISHA AND THE SON OF THE SHUNAMIS)

(a)The Shunamis woman, who was the sister of Avishag ha'Shunamis (the woman who kept David ha'Melech warm in his old age), was an important woman of means, and from the very first time that Elisha visited Shunem when she prevailed upon him to eat in her home, he would always eat there.

(b)On one visit, Elisha -- grateful for what the Shunamis had done for him (she built for him a special room containing a bed, a table, a chair, and a lamp, and hosted him whenever he was in the area) -- asked her if there was something that he could do for her, such as use his influence to intercede on her behalf with the king or with some official. When she replied that there was nothing that she needed, Gechazi pointed out that she was childless and that her husband was old and there was little likelihood that they would have children. Elisha blessed her that she would bear a son in exactly one year. The blessing materialized, and she bore a son the following year.

(c)When the child died suddenly, she placed him on Elisha's bed and called to her husband to send her a servant and a donkey, so that she could travel quickly to the Navi, but she did not tell her husband what happened. Anticipating a miracle, she preferred not to inform him so that the miracle should be performed with as little publicity as possible.

(d)The servant led her to the Navi at Mount Carmel. The Navi saw her from a distance and sent his servant, Gechazi, to run and greet her, and to ask her whether everything was alright. Once again, she replied merely, "Shalom," without divulging the reason for her visit.

(e)Arriving before the Navi, she fell at his feet. Gechazi stepped forward to push her away and prevent her from holding on to the Navi's feet, but the Navi, sensing her distress but not knowing its source, ordered him to leave her alone. The Chachamimi understands that the word "l'Hadfah" (in verse 29) means that Gechazi grabbed the Shunamis in an indecent way while attempting to push her away.

(f)Elisha sent Gechazi back to the house with instructions neither to greet anyone on the way nor to respond to anyone who greets him. Upon arrival at the house, he was

to place Elisha's staff on the body of the dead child.

(g)Gechazi did not obey Elisha's instructions. Not only did he stop everyone he met on the way, he also mocked Elisha, asking everyone whether they really believed that the stick he was holding could possibly revive the dead. In the end, Elisha was forced to go himself to revive the boy, which he succeeded in doing only after praying to HaSh-m for Divine assistance. (The son of the Shunamis grew up to be the prophet, Chavakuk.)

(h)This verse refers to the tool used by Elisha to bring the son of the Ishah ha'Shunamis back to life as a "Mish'enes."

18)[line 45]"בלע המות לנצח [ומחה ה' אלקים דמעה מעל כל פנים וחרפת עמו יסיר מעל כל הארץ כי ה' דבר]""BILA HA'MAVES LA'NETZACH, [U'MACHAH HASH-M ELOKIM DIM'AH ME'AL KOL PANIM, V'CHERPAS AMO YASIR ME'AL KOL HA'ARETZ, KI HASH-M DIBER]"- "He shall destroy death forever [and HaSh-m Elokim will wipe tears from every face, and the shame of His people He will remove from the entire earth, for HaSh-m has spoken.]" (Yeshayah 25:8)

19)[line 47]"ועמדו זרים ורעו צאנכם ובני נכר אכריכם וכורמיכם""V'AMDU ZARIM V'RA'U TZONCHEM, U'VNEI NECHAR IKAREICHEM V'KORMEICHEM"- "And strangers shall arise and shepherd your flocks, and foreigners will be those who work your fields and vineyards." (Yeshayah 61:5)

20)[line 47]"וחפרה הלבנה ובושה החמה...""V'CHAFRAH HA'LEVANAH U'VOSHAH HA'CHAMAH..."- "The moon will be embarrassed, and the sun, shamed." (Yeshayah 24:23) - This implies that the sun will not shine.

21)[line 48]שבעתים כאור שבעת הימיםSHIV'ASAYIM K'OR SHIV'AS HA'YAMIM- seven times seven the daylight of seven days (i.e. 343 times the current power of the sun)

22)[line 48]כאן לעולם הבא כאן לימות המשיחKAN L'OLAM HA'BA, KAN LI'YEMOS HA'MASHI'ACH- here (when there will be no light other then the glow of the Shechinah) in Olam ha'Ba (the period following that of the Mashi'ach); here (when the sun will be much brighter) in the times of Mashi'ach

23)[line 51]"אני אמית ואחיה מחצתי ואני ארפא""ANI AMIS VA'ACHAYEH, MACHATZTI VA'ANI ERPA"- "I will kill and give life; I struck [Bnei Yisrael] and I will heal [them]." (Devarim 32:39)

24)[line 51]אחויי מחייACHUYEI MECHAYEI- He will bring the dead back to life

25)[last line]והדר מה שמחצתי ואני ארפאV'HADAR MAH SHE'MACHATZTI VA'ANI ERPAH- and following [the resurrection] I will heal that which I afflicted (that is, people will first be resurrected in the same state in which they died, and will then be healed of any infirmity which ails them)

68b----------------------------------------68b

26)[line 5]חותכין יבלת במקדשCHOTCHIN YABELES BA'MIKDASH (SHEVUS: EIN SHEVUS B'MIKDASH)

(a)A Shevus is an action prohibited on Shabbos mid'Rabanan. The Torah states "... uva'Yom ha'Shevi'i Tishbos" - "... and you shall rest on the seventh day" (Shemos 23:12). The Rabanan understood this to apply even to actions that are not Melachos, and as a result they prohibited actions which are permitted mid'Oraisa (see Shabbos 114b). The term "Shevus" is derived from the word "Tishbos" in the verse.

(b)The Chachamim never intended their Shevus decrees to apply in the Beis ha'Mikdash. This is because Kohanim, who do most of the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash, are Zerizim -- meticulous and able to be relied upon in their work (RABEINU YEHONASON, Eruvin 102a). (Although this is the reason, once the Shevus decrees do not apply to the Beis ha'Mikdash, they do not apply even to non-Kohanim. -ME'IRI, Pesachim 65a; TOSFOS, Shabbos 123b.)

(c)The Gemara in Pesachim 65a mentions a Machlokes between Rebbi Nasan and the Chachamim. Rebbi Nasan maintains that Shevus decrees are not applied in the Beis ha'Mikdash only when necessary for the Avodah. The Chachamim are of the opinion that "Ein Shevus b'Mikdash" is a blanket rule applicable even to that which is not directly related to the Avodah.

(d)TOSFOS in Shabbos (95a, DH Shara) points out that there are many exceptions to this rule. See also TOSFOS YOM TOV (end of DH Gavohah) and TUREI EVEN (Rosh Hashanah 29b, DH v'Rabanan), who write that concerning things that are not necessary for the Beis ha'Mikdash itself, the prohibitions of the Rabanan do apply. For example, carrying inside the Beis ha'Mikdash on Shabbos for one's personal needs would still be prohibited.

27a)[line 8]בלחהLACHAH- [a] moist [wart]; i.e. one which is still growing. Removing it with one's teeth or hands (kil'Achar Yad) constitutes a Shevus.

b)[line 8]ביבשהYEVESHAH- [a] dry [wart]; i.e. one which is no longer growing and therefore easily crumbles away. Removing it, therefore, does not even constitute a Shevus.

28)[line 13]מפרך פריכאMAFRICH PERICHA- is brittle and crumbles off (and therefore is not referred to as "cutting")

29)[line 20]רבי יהושעV'REBBI YEHOSHUA- and Rebbi Yehoshua [who brought s proof from that which it is prohibited to bring food and drink from outside of the Techum on Yom Tov]

30)[line 29]עב''ם סימןAB"M SIMAN- (a) This is a mnemonic device referring to Atzeres, Shabbos, and Puri*m* -- the subjects of the following three Sugyos -- which uses the first letter of the first word, the middle letter of the middle word and the last letter of the last word (Melo ha'Ro'im, second explanation); (b) According to the alternate Girsa AB"S (with a Samech) SIMAN, this is a mnemonic device referring to the names of the Amora'im in the following three Sugyos: Rebbi Elazar, Rabah, and Rav Yosef (Melo ha'Ro'im, first explanation).

31)[line 30]יום שניתנה בו תורהYOM SHE'NITNAH BO TORAH- One should celebrate with food and drink in order to demonstrate his happiness with the gift of the Torah.

32)[line 36]לבר מעצרתאL'VAR ME'ATZARTA- except for Shavuos

33)[line 36]ופוריאPURAYA- Purim

34)[line 36]ומעלי יומא דכיפוריMA'ALEI YOMA D'CHIPUREI- Erev Yom Kippur (see Insights to Berachos 8:5)

35)[line 45]עגלא תלתאEGLA TILTA- (a) a calf [which is the] third [offspring born to its mother]. Such a calf provides especially choice and delectable meat (RASHI here, Sanhedrin 65b, Shabbos 11a); (b) a calf [which has reached] one-third [of its full growth]. Such a calf provides especially choice and delectable meat (RASHI Eruvin 63a); (c) a calf [which has reached] one-third [of its expected lifespan, at which point it has reached its full* growth and tastiness] (RASHI Sanhedrin 65b); (d) a calf which is healthy and therefore good to eat (TOSFOS Gitin 56a). (See Insights to Shabbos 136:1.)

36)[line 45]אי לא האי יומא דקא גריםIY LO HAI YOMA D'KA GARIM- if not for this day (i.e. the day of the giving of the Torah) which has caused [me to become a Talmid Chacham]

37)[line 47]ותלי וקאי בעיברא דדשאV'TALI V'KAI B'IBRA D'DASHA- and he would lean on the bolt of the door

38)[line 48]חדאי נפשאיCHADA'I NAFSHA'I- be glad, my soul!

39)[line 49]לך קראי לך תנאיLACH KARA'I, LACH TANA'I- for your sake I have learned Torah, for your sake I have learned Mishnah

OTHER D.A.F. RESOURCES ON THIS DAF