1) [line 6] MIKPAH - a stiff porridge
2) [line 15] K'ZAYIS BI'CHEDEI ACHILAS PERAS
(a) The Torah specifies a Shi'ur for which a person who eats this amount of a prohibited food item is liable to Malkus (a k'Zayis). Similarly, the Torah also specifies the amount of time in which the Isur must be eaten in order to be liable. This amount of time is called "Kedei Achilas Peras," and is defined as the amount of time that it takes to eat three - or four - Beitzim of bread with relish, while reclining. A person who eats a k'Zayis of Isur in more than this amount of time is exempt from Malkus, exactly as if he ate a Chatzi Shi'ur (Kerisus 12b).
(b) This amount of time applies not only to when the Isur is eaten all by itself, but also when it is eaten in a mixture. If a person eats a k'Zayis of the Isur within the amount of time that it takes to eat a Peras of the entire mixture, he is liable to Malkus (Pesachim 44a, Avodah Zarah 67a).
(c) The Rishonim argue in the case where an item of Isur is mixed together with items of Heter such that one will not eat a k'Zayis during the time of Kedei Achilas Peras. Some rule that eating a k'Zayis of this mixture also incurs Malkus. Others rule that it does not, but it is nevertheless a Lav of the Torah, or an Aseh (TOSFOS Chulin at the top of 99a). RASHI (Pesachim 45a DH v'Rebbi Akiva) rules that such a mixture is prohibited only mid'Rabanan, according to many Tana'im.
*3*) [line 18] ELA MAI, MISHUM D'HETER MITZTAREF L'ISUR? SOF SOF, AMAI PELIGI RABANAN ... - that is, if the Rabanan of the previous Beraisa do not side that one is Chayav for eating k'Zayis b'Chedei Achilas Peras, than our question returns: why does the area of the spicy porridge that the Tamei touches become Tamei? It must be that the Rabanan hold that Heter Mitztaref l'Isur, and that is why the porridge can become Tamei -- the non-Terumah spices can combine with the rest of the porridge to be considered Terumah. But if so, why do they argue with Rebbi Eliezer in our Mishnah; let them agree that one gets Malkus for eating Kutach since the globs of Chametz in it, when combined with the Heter, equal a k'Zayis! (This appears to be Rashi's understanding of the Sugya. TOSFOS DH Ela erases these words from the Gemara, though.)
4) [line 21] D'LEIS BEI K'ZAYIS BI'CHEDEI ACHILAS PERAS - that is, it is not normally eaten in a fashion that one consumes a k'Zayis bi'Chedei Achilas Pras
5) [line 22] D'KASARIF V'ACHIL LEI - that he eats it by swallowing it
6) [line 23] V'IY MISHTAR KA'SHATAR V'ACHIL - if he eats it by dipping his bread into it
7) [line 26] MEDUCHOS - mortars containing ground spices
8) [line 1] TA'AM K'IKAR (The flavor of the food is considered like the essence of the food)
An item of food that is prohibited to eat that has given its flavor to another item of food or drink in which it was mixed, causes the entire mixture to become prohibited (i.e. it is not Batel b'Rov). (See above, Background to Pesachim Daf 44:2)
9) [line 13] D'AF AL GAV D'TA'AROVES - even though the wine is absorbed in the bread (and he is not drinking the wine by itself)
10) [line 22] TARU LEI - the meat is soaked in milk
11) [line 25] GI'ULEI NOCHRIM - the prohibition to use vessels of non-Jews (without Kashering) because the non-kosher food that they absorbed will be expelled into the food that is cooked in them (Bamidbar 31:21-24)
12) [line 30] KEDEIRAH BAS YOMA - a pot that was used to cook non-kosher food that same day
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