12TH CYCLE DEDICATIONS:
 
PESACHIM 43 (1 Adar) - dedicated in memory of Mordecai (Marcus) ben Elimelech Shmuel Kornfeld, who perished in the Holocaust along with most of his family. His Yahrzeit is observed on 1 Adar. May his death and the deaths of the other Kedoshim of the Holocaust atone for the sins of Klal Yisrael like Korbanos.

[43a - 47 lines; 43b - 36 lines]

1)[line 1]שהגיעו לפרקן ולא הגיעוSHE'HIGI'U L'FIRKAN V'LO HIGI'U- (a) they have at least two pubic hairs but are not yet twelve years old (and they want to remove their hairs) (RASHI); (b) they are of age to be married but have not yet found a husband (and they want to beautify themselves) (TOSFOS Shabbos 80b DH she'Higi'u); (c) they are twelve years old but do not yet have signs of maturity (and they want to cause them to appear - the opposite of Rashi) (RABEINU CHANANEL ibid(.

2)[line 2]טופלות אותןTOFLOS OSAN- paste on them (on their skin(

3)[line 2]בסידSID- lime (plaster(

4)[line 3]בסולתSOLES- fine flour

5)[line 4]בשמן המורSHEMEN HA'MOR- myrrh oil

6)[line 4]"[ובהגיע תר נערה ונערה לבוא אל המלך אחשורוש מקץ היות לה כדת הנשים שנים עשר חדש כי כן ימלאו ימי מרוקיהן] ששה חדשים בשמן המור [וששה חדשים בבשמים ובתמרוקי הנשים]""... SHISHAH CHODASHIM B'SHEMEN HA'MOR..."- "[Now when the turn of each maiden arrived to come to King Achashverosh, after she had completed her twelve-month make-up period that the women were allotted, for so were the days of her make-up period spent] six months with myrrh oil [and six months with perfumes and with women's cosmetics]." (Esther 2:12)

7)[line 5]סטכתSATKAS- oil prepared with spices (myrrh oil)

8)[line 7]אנפיקניןANPIKNIN- a type of oil, which is mentioned regarding Menachos (see Background to Pesachim 36:13). The Mishnah (Menachos 85b) states that l'Chatchilah it may not be used in Menachos.

9)[line 8]שמשיר את השיערMESHIR ES HA'SEI'AR- it makes hair fall out

10)[line 9]ומעדן את הבשרME'ADEN ES HA'BASAR- rejuvenates the flesh

11)[line 13]בר מערבאBAR MA'ARAVA- a person from Eretz Yisrael

12)[line 15]מתכילתאMASKILTA- a relish, dip

13)[line 17]ונוקשהNUKSHEH- Chametz that is spoiled and is not fit for human consumption (barely edible - Magen Avraham, Mishnah Berurah 442:2)

14)[line 19]שיאורSI'UR

(a)As dough becomes Chametz it goes through a number of stages. 1. First, it becomes pale like the appearance of a man whose hair stands on end out of fright. 2. It then starts to form thin cracks on its surface, which look like locusts' antennae (Karnei Chagavim). 3. Next, the cracks begin to multiply and run into each other.

(b)The Tana'im argue as to which stage is called "Si'ur," which necessitates that the dough be burned and is Asur b'Hana'ah, and which stage is considered "Siduk," which is not only Asur b'Hana'ah but also punishable with Kares if eaten. Si'ur is considered inedible (Chametz Nuksheh), since the dough has not completed its fermentation, and therefore one who eats it is not punished with Kares.

(c)Rebbi Meir calls stage 1 "Si'ur" and maintains that it is already leavened, but since at this point it is not fit to be eaten one receives lashes, not Kares, for eating it. He calls stage 2 "Siduk" which *is* punishable by Kares.

(d)Rebbi Yehudah maintains that stage 1 is still Matzah mid'Oraisa, and is prohibited only mid'Rabanan. He calls stage 2 "Si'ur" and maintains that it must be destroyed before Pesach, but if one eats it he is exempt from Kares. Stage 3 is "Siduk," which is punishable by Kares.

15)[line 22]שיאור ישרף דרבי מאיר לרבי מאיר דרבי יהודה לרבי יהודהSI'UR YISAREF, D'REBBI MEIR L'REBBI MEIR, D'REBBI YEHUDAH L'REBBI YEHUDAH- when the Beraisa states "Si'ur Yisaref," it means that the stage called "Si'ur" by Rebbi Meir (stage 1; see previous entry) must be burned according to Rebbi Meir, and the stage called "Si'ur" by Rebbi Yehudah (stage 2) must be burned according to Rebbi Yehudah.

43b----------------------------------------43b

16)[line 18]חלבCHELEV

(a)Chelev refers to the fat of an animal that is offered on the Mizbe'ach. It consists of the layer of fat covering the stomachs, all the other fat attached to the stomachs, and the fat on the kidneys along the flanks (Vayikra 3:4).

(b)The Chelev of a Kosher Behemah is forbidden to eat, but may be used for any other purpose. The Chelev of a Chayah, however, may even be eaten. "Shuman" refers to all the other fat of an animal that is permitted.

(c)If a person eats Chelev b'Mezid, he is Chayav Kares; b'Shogeg he must bring a Korban Chatas. If a person is in doubt whether the fat he ate was Chelev or Shuman, he must bring a Korban Asham Taluy (see Background to Nazir 23:2:b).

17)[line 29]בל תקטירוBAL TAKTIRU

(a)It is prohibited by a Lav of the Torah to offer sourdough, or anything that contains sourdough, on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 2:11).

(b)A person who offers sourdough on the Mizbe'ach receives Malkus. However, the Amora'im argue as to the extent of the prohibition. According to Abaye, even offering the most miniscule amount of sourdough incurs Malkus. According to Rava, since "Ein Haktarah b'Pachos mik'Zayis" ("the burning of items on the Mizbe'ach is not considered a [valid] burning if they measure less than a k'Zayis"), the sourdough must be the size of a k'Zayis in order for the transgressor to receive Malkus.

18)[line 33]אין היתר מצטרף לאיסורEIN HETER MITZTAREF L'ISUR (Permitted food items do not combine with prohibited food items)

(a)Food items that are prohibited to be eaten, such as Chelev, Nosar, Pigul, etc., have a minimal Shi'ur (amount) that the Torah specifies for which a person who eats them is liable to punishment. Even though an amount less than this is also prohibited to be eaten ("Chatzi Shi'ur Asur Min ha'Torah" - Yoma 74a), it incurs no punishment by Beis Din. A person who eats a Shi'ur incurs Malkus. A person who eats less does not, since "Ein [Ma'aseh] Achilah Pachos mik'Zayis" ("eating is defined as an act of eating at least a k'Zayis").

(b)There are Isurim for which the Torah specifies that a person who eats even the most miniscule amount receives Malkus, on condition that he eats it with other food items (even items that are permissible) that add up to the Shi'ur of a k'Zayis. Since he has done an action of eating (by eating a k'Zayis) and the Isur was included in what he ate, he receives Malkus. This Halachah is stated in the Torah with regard to food items that absorbed the taste of Kodshim that became Asurim (Pesachim 45a). According to Rebbi Akiva (ibid. 44b), the Torah also reveals this Halachah in the case of a Nazir who soaks his bread in wine and eats a k'Zayis of the bread and wine, for which he receives Malkus. (The Tana'im argue as to whether this rule applies to other Isurim as well.)

(c)1. Heter Mitztaref l'Isur is not applied when the items of Isur are Batel (nullified) in the Heter. It can only be applied when the Isur is not Batel (e.g. when it is noticeable that the Isur lends its taste to the Heter). 2. The Rishonim argue as to whether this Din applies only to an item of Isur that is Balu'a (absorbed) in Heter (TOSFOS Pesachim 43b DH k'Man and most RISHONIM) or also to an item of Isur that stands alone and is not Balu'a in the Heter at all (RASHI Pesachim 43b DH Ein). 3. The Rishonim also argue about a case where a Chatzi Zayis of Isur is Balu'a in a Chatzi Zayis of Heter, yielding a full k'Zayis. According to the Tana who does not rule that Heter combines with Isur, will the person who eats this mixture be Chayav or not? According to RASHI, since the Isur lends its taste to the Heter, a person who eats it is Chayav as if all of the k'Zayis was Isur. According to TOSFOS and most of the RISHONIM, this person is exempt from Malkus since there is only a Chatzi Zayis of Isur. See Insights.

19)[line 34]מאיסורי נזירISUREI NAZIR

If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period, he becomes a Nazir for a period of thirty days. During this period, he is not allowed to: (1) cut his hair; (2) become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or (3) consume any products of the grapevine. See Background to Nazir 2:1.

20)[line 35]"משרת""MISHRAS"- the verse reads, "v'Chol Mishras Anavim Lo Yishteh" - "and he may not drink any liquid in which grapes were soaked [or steeped]." (Bamidbar 6:3)

21)[last line]כמאן כרבי אליעזרK'MAN K'REBBI ELIEZER- (a) TOSFOS explains that we have a valid source for ruling Heter Mitztaref l'Isur by Se'or only according to Rebbi Eliezer, who makes separate derivations from both the words "Kol*" and "Ki Kol" (as the Gemara seemed to conclude from the previously quoted Beraisa). The first derivation will be that when Se'or is mixed with a normal Minchah, one is still Chayav; the second is that Heter Mitztaref l'Isur. The Rabanan derive only a single teaching from "Ki* Kol" (they do not derive anything from "Kol"), and therefore they have no source to prove Heter Mitztaref l'Isur by Se'or. NACHALAS DAVID understands that this is the intention of Rashi here as well. (b) Alternatively, RASHI may have understood that our Gemara is following the original* conclusion of the earlier Sugya. Rebbi Eliezer derives a law only from the word "Kol" (and not from the word "Ki"), while the Rabanan derive a law only from the word "Ki" (and not from the word "Kol"). In the case of Se'or, Heter Mitztaref l'Isur can be learned only from the word "Kol," and therefore only Rebbi Eliezer will say Heter Mitztaref l'Isur.

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