OUTLINES OF HALACHOS FROM THE DAF
THE MIREL BAS YAKOV MORDECHAI KORNFELD
prepared by Rabbi Pesach Feldman of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
1) CLEANING LINEN GARMENTS ON SHABBOS AND CHOL HA'MO'ED [Libun:linen garments :Shabbos and Chol ha'Mo'ed]
1. One must be Mechaskes (rub) each ingredient (used to test whether a stain is Dam Nidah) three times (on the stain).
2. Mo'ed Katan 10b: Rava permitted to be Lechaskes Kirmei (this will be explained).
3. This is because it is Ma'aseh Hedyot.
4. (R. Yitzchak bar Ami): One may not tie (straw into folds) in sleeves.
5. This is because it is Ma'aseh Uman.
6. Shabbos 140a - Question (Rav Acha bar Yosef): May one be Mechaskes Kasnisa (a linen garment)?
i. If he intends to soften it, it is permitted. If he intends to make the white shine, it is forbidden.
7. Answer (Rav Safra): It is permitted, for he intends to soften it.
8. Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak: Why didn't you ask about a turban?
9. Rav Acha: Rav Huna already answered that for me.
10. Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak: You should have derived that also a linen garment is permitted!
11. Rav Acha: There, it looks like he whitens it. Here, it does not look like he whitens it.
12. 141a (Rav Kahana): If there is mud on one's garment, one may be Mechaskes it from the inside, but not from the outside.
13. Zevachim 94b (Rava): Laundering without Kiskus (rubbing one side of the garment on the other) is not considered laundering.
1. Rambam (Hilchos Yom Tov 8:14): (On Chol ha'Mo'ed) we may soften garments by hand, for this is Ma'aseh Hedyot. One may not tie knots of sleeves, for it is Ma'aseh Uman. The same applies to all similar cases.
i. Aruch (Erech Kiskes): Lechaskes is to take a part of a linen garment in his hand and soften it, until there are small folds, for when it dries after it is laundered, it is hard. When one wears it, the folds open up.
ii. Aruch (Erech Karam): Kirmei are esteemed garments as thin as an egg shell.
iii. Aruch (Erech Katar): Kitura b'Yada is smoking the fragrance from the sleeve when it is resting on a Kli. Others say that it is compressing the sleeve. It is Ma'aseh Uman, so it is forbidden (on Chol ha'Mo'ed).
iv. Hagahos Maimoniyos (30): Also the Aruch brought loads of proofs that Lechaskes is softening garments by hand. The Ri explains that it is smoothing garments with a glass stone after laundering. This is ironing. Sefer ha'Mitzvos gave the former Perush, for in Shabbos we say that if there is mud on one's garment, one may be Mechaskes it from the inside.
v. Hagahos Maimoniyos (40): The Rambam explains Kituira like (the latter Perush of) the Aruch. Also R. Shimshon says so. Women often do so to their sleeves, so they will be full of folds. R. Chananel explains that it is (tying) garters that hold up socks. It is normal to do so.
2. Rambam (Hilchos Shabbos 22:17) One may not be Mechaskes a Sudar (scarf), for he is Melaben (launders or bleaches) it. One may be Mechaskes a linen garment, for he intends only to soften it.
i. Rebuttal (Ra'avad): Both of these are permitted. Also the Rif permits.
ii. Magid Mishneh: Some texts explicitly say that Rav Huna forabde a turban. Rav Acha did not learn from there to a linen garment, for there it looks like he whitens, but here (a turban) it does not look like he whitens. The Rambam is like this text. Even according to the other text (which does not mention how Rav Huna ruled), Rashi explains that Rav Huna forbade, for if he permitted, all the more so a linen garment would be permitted! There is more concern for whitening a turban than for a linen garment. The Ramban explains oppositely. Rav Huna permitted a turban, but still there was a question about a linen garment. The Rif (58a) did not mention a turban, for it is just like a linen garment. Both are permitted. The Ra'avad holds like this. I say that even according to the opposite text 'here it looks like he whitens, but there it does not look like he whitens', one could explain either way. Rashi explains that Kiskus is when it is hard after laundering, so he rubs it between his hands to soften it. The rubbing also makes the white shine.
3. Rosh (Shabbos 20:9): Rav Huna forbade a turban.
i. Tosfos (10b DH Kiskusei): Rashi explains that this is Anpshir (strengthening through laundering). Some say that it is Likir (rubbing). Kiskus connotes like this, like it says in Shabbos (141a) 'one may be Mechaskes it from the inside, but not from the outside.'
1. Shulchan Aruch (OC 302:5): If a Chalok (undergarment) is hard after laundering, one may rub it with his hands to soften it, for he intends only to soften it. One may not do so to a scarf, for he intends to shine it, and this is Melaben.
i. Beis Yosef (DH Chalok): Our text, and that of the Rosh, Tur and Rambam says that Rav Huna forbade a turban. The Ran and Magid Mishneh say that the text of the Ra'avad, Ramban and Rif permits. The Magid Mishneh says that even according to their text, it is better to explain like the Rambam.
ii. Mishnah Berurah (22): However, one may not roll a Kli on it like is normally done, and one may not make folds with Kelim normally used for this.
iii. Mishnah Berurah (23): One may not rub a scarf from the inside or outside.
iv. Mishnah Berurah (24): If one intends to shine a Chalok, it is forbidden, just like a scarf.
v. Kaf ha'Chayim (36): The Shulchan Aruch and Rema permit only a Chalok of linen, or similarly linen underpants, for one is not particular (about how white they are). The Rema cites Shibolei ha'Leket, but he does not hold like Shibolei ha'Leket who forbids even a Chalok of linen. Eliyahu Rabah says so. However, Tosefes Shabbos holds that the Shulchan Aruch discusses a Chalok not of linen. Migdal Oz says that R. Chananel permits only linen. If so, we must be stringent, and we cannot permit any Chalok! All the more so we must be stringent about outer garments.
vi. Kaf ha'Chayim (38): It is not literally Melaben, for there is no water.
2. Rema: Others linen garments are like a scarf.
i. Beis Yosef (DH v'Shibolei): The Shibolei ha'Leket forbids rubbing our fine linen hats, for he needs to Melaben them. R. Yoshiyah says that the same applies to shirts, pants and linen garments. Laundering them is Libun. I say that his text said that Rav Huna forbade, and he explains that all linen garments are included in scarf. The Heter for Kasnisa is not for a linen garment. It is proper to be stringent, for there is not such a great need (to be lenient).
ii. Magen Avraham (8): We forbid other linen garments, for they are hard after laundering, and rubbing them is Melaben, and it is normally done by hand.
iii. Gra (DH v'Kova'im): Shibolei ha'Leket forbids, for he and R. Tam hold that the Gemara (141a) permits rubbing a garment with mud on it only from the inside, i.e. a linen garment. Rubbing from the outside looks like Melaben. If so, the Chalok and scarf (which we permit) cannot be of linen. This is like the Ramban's text, which does not say that Rav Huna forbade. He explains that Rav Huna permitted. Therefore, 141a must discuss linen, which whitens very quickly, like it says in Mo'ed Katan 18(a-b. This is why one may launder linen garments during Chol ha'Mo'ed.) The Rema says 'other garments' to exclude a Chalok, for it is forbidden if it is linen.
iv. Mishnah Berurah (25): Even though we forbid linen hats, for linen garments are hard after laundering and softening them is Libu, we permit a Chalok even of linen, since it is worn underneath and it is not seen externally, so presumably he intends (only) to soften it.
3. Shulchan Aruch (OC 541:3): (On Chol ha'Mo'ed) one may mash linen garments after they were laundered, to whiten them and soften them. One may not tie sleeves, for it is Ma'aseh Uman.
i. Beis Yosef (DH u'Mah she'Piresh): The Tur explains like the Rambam and Semag. The Ri explained like the Aruch, that it is ironing after laundering. Another version says that it is with water with flour. The first Perush is primary, like it says in Shabbos. Also R. Yerucham says so, but only for needs of the Mo'ed. This is obvious.
ii. Beis Yosef (DH u'Mah she'Chasav): Rashi says that Kitur Bei Yadei is to compress the folds on the sleeve. One inserts smooth stalks and makes folds. The Mordechai (845), R. Yerucham, and Hagahos Maimoniyos agree. Hagahos Ashri (21) brings from Ohr Zaru'a that even though it is for the Mo'ed, it is forbidden, for it is not Devar ha'Avud. It looks like proper Binyan (building). Rashi also explained that it is using smooth Kelim to smooth the sleeves. It is forbidden, for it is Ma'aseh Uman. R. Yerucham says that this is Lechaskes that Rava permits. The Rambam says that it is making the folds on the sleeves.
iii. Magen Avraham (4): One may mash for needs of the Mo'ed. See 302:5.
iv. Magen Avraham (5): This is making folds. R. Yerucham forbids if they do not become undone when one wears the garment.
v. Eshel Avraham: Seemingly, R. Yerucham is lenient. If the folds become undone and one cannot wear it that way, it is permitted on Chol ha'Mo'ed. It is forbidden only if one could wear it without this, just this makes it nicer. This requires investigation. The Bach (519) permits burning spices in order to scent garments on Chol ha'Mo'ed.
vi. Gra: Tosfos brought both Perushim. In Nidah we say that one must be Mechaskes. In Zevachim we say that laundering without Kiskus (is not considered laundering).
vii. Mishnah Berurah (6): Regarding Shabbos we forbid this with linen garments, even for a cloak, if he intends to whiten it. Here (on Chol ha'Mo'ed) it is permitted even if he intends to whiten it, but only if he needs it for the Mo'ed.
viii. Mishnah Berurah (7): The Rema below permits not only by hand. One may even roll the Kli normally used for this on the garments.
ix. Mishnah Berurah (8): We forbid only if the folds are so strong that they do not do not become undone when one wears it. Then, it is Ma'aseh Uman. It is forbidden even for needs of the Mo'ed. Therefore, one may not fold the collar with pieces of wood special for this, for it remains folded even when he wears it.
4. Rema: One may smoothen garments with glass, like normal, since it is for the Mo'ed.
i. Mishnah Berurah (9): This connotes with the round glass stone. It is only Ma'aseh Hedyot. Chayei Adam permits with a Kli in the normal way. This connotes that the same applies to other Kelim normally used to smoothen. If so, one may use the smooth iron Kli that tailors use, for it is all Ma'aseh Hedyot, so it is permitted for needs of the Mo'ed.