BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
[63a - 49 lines; 63b - 50 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara and Rashi.
 Gemara 63a [line 16]:
"Rov Diburo Shel Shalosh Sha'os" רוב דבורו של שלש שעות
From the words of the Rambam (Isurei Bi'ah 9:38) it appears that the word "Shel" was not in his text (see Insights)
 Gemara 63b [line 10]:
The Girsa of the Rambam is "v'Rosachas" (Ma'adanei Yom Tov #80)
1) [line 4] לא טעם מידי באורתא LO TA'AM MIDI B'URTA - he did not eat anything on the previous night
2) [line 5] מבערב קתני MIBA'EREV KA'TANI - that is, from the time he went to sleep last night until morning (but he did eat on the previous night) (RASHI)
3) [line 11] במתנמנם B'MISNAMNEM - [when the Beraisa states that one who is awake all night can produce Rok Tafel in the morning, we are referring to a case where he was awake but] dozing off [troughout the night]
4a) [line 12] נים ולא ניםNIM V'LO NIM - dozing, but not dozing
b) [line 12] תיר ולא תיר TIR V'LO TIR - awake, but not awake
5) [line 12] דקרו ליה ועני D'KARU LEI V'ANI - they call him and he answers
6) [line 12] ולא ידע לאהדורי סברא V'LO YADA L'AHADUREI SEVARA - but he is unable to answer a question that requires contemplative thought
7) [line 13] וכי מדכרו ליה מדכרV'CHI MADKERU LEI, MIDKAR - and when they remind him [about what he heard], he remembers
8) [line 16] כל שיצא רוב דבורו של שלש שעות KOL SHE'YATZA ROV DIBURO SHEL SHALOSH SHA'OS - as long as he spoke the amount of words that he would normally speak in the first three hours of the day
9) [line 20] הבלא דפומא מעלי HEVLA D'FUMA MA'ALEI - the warm air of the mouth improves the effect of the Mei Gerisin (and we cannot prove that saliva is a necessary ingredient for all of the Shiv'ah Samemanin)
10) [line 22] ועובר שיתן לתוכו מלח V'OVER SHE'YITEN L'SOCHO MELACH - and before he puts salt into it (there is a specific time, known to experienced cooks, when to add salt in the process of cooking Gerisin - MEIRI)
11) [line 23] לישנא דאקדומי LISHNA D'AKDUMEI - an expression that means "before"
12) [line 24] "[ויהי מה ארוץ ואמר לו רוץ] וירץ אחימעץ דרך הככר ויעבר את הכושי" "[VI'YEHI MAH ARUTZ, VA'YOMER LO 'RUTZ!'] VA'YARATZ ACHIMA'ATZ DERECH HA'KIKAR VA'YA'AVOR ES HA'KUSHI." - "[Whatever happens, let me run. And he (Yo'av) said to him 'Run!'] So Achima'atz ran by way of the plains and he overtook the Kushi." (Shmuel II 18:23) - The Gemara derives from this verse that the word "va'Ya'avor" (to pass) means to "come before" or "precede." (ACHIMA'ATZ THE NEWSTELLER)
(a) When, against the express orders of David ha'Melech, Yo'av killed David's rebellious son Avshalom, Achima'atz, son of Tzadok the Kohen Gadol, assuming that the king would be pleased to hear such good news, asked permission to run and inform the king that HaSh-m had "granted him justice from his enemies." Yo'av however, knowing that such news would only cause David grief, turned down Achima'atz's offer. Instead, he asked a Kushi to run and inform David.
(b) When Achima'atz asked a second time to be allowed to run after the Kushi, Yo'av again turned him down, but when he asked a third time, he granted his request. Achima'atz ran and overtook the Kushi, and was the first to approach David's camp.
(c) When David was informed that a runner was arriving in the camp, and that the runner appeared to be Achima'atz, his initial reaction was that Achima'atz was a good man, and that he therefore must be the harbinger of good news.
(d) Arriving first, Achima'atz informed the king of the victory and the quelling of the rebellion, but when the king asked him about Avshalom, he pretended not to know; he told the king that the Kushi had been given all of the details. Indeed, when the Kushi arrived and told David what had happened, the king was grief-stricken, despite the victory.
13) [line 26] "והוא עבר לפניהם" "V'HU AVAR LIFNEIHEM" - "And he preceded them" (Bereishis 33:3)
14) [line 29] צריך שיעור לשיעורן TZARICH SHI'UR L'SHI'URAN - we need to quantify their quantity (as the Gemara continues to explain)
15) [line 33] אמטויי ואתויי AMTUYEI V'ASUYEI - [rubbing the garment with the stain] forward and backward
16) [line 41] כל אשה שיש לה וסת KOL ISHAH SHE'YESH LAH VESES (VESES: KEVI'US VESES)
(a) A woman's Veses is the fixed monthly cycle when she usually menstruates. Every time a woman gets her period, she must consider that she may get her next period on the same date in the next month. On that day she is prohibited to her husband, whether she experienced bleeding one or two times on that calendar date (Veses she'Eino Kavu'a) or three times in a row (Veses Kavu'a).
(b) Our Gemara (and several other Sugyos; see Charts: Nidah #11 (Daf 63b)) lists various types of Vestos:
1. VESES HA'GUF - Bleeding that occurs along with sneezing, body-aches, etc. (Mishnah here)
2. VESES B'ONES (Circumstantial Veses), when the Ones does not directly cause the onset of the Veses (see TOSFOS DH Achlah) - Bleeding that occurs after eating garlic, onions or peppercorns (Gemara Nidah 63b)
3. VESES B'ONES, when the Ones directly causes the onset of the Veses (ibid.) - Bleeding that occurs after jumping or other physical activities (Nidah 11a). (The Halachic ruling is that such a Veses must be coupled with another factor, such as the day of the week or month on which the Veses occurred, in order to establish a Veses (SHULCHAN ARUCH YD 189:17).
4. VESES HAFLAGAH (Intervals) - e.g. seeing blood on 1st of Nisan, 20th of Nisan, 9th of Iyar and 28th of Iyar. Each of the three intervals is 20 days. (Note that the woman must experience bleeding four times to create this Veses.) (A Veses Haflagah occurs after a certain interval of days. However according to the understanding of at least one Acharon (Chidushei Hafla'ah beg. of YD 189), such a Veses can be established based on an interval of a set number of hours as well, such as a woman who experiences bleeding every 600 hours.)
5. VESES HA'CHODESH (Calendar date) - e.g. seeing blood on 1st of Nisan, 1st of Iyar and 1st of Sivan (Note that the intervals are not similar.)
6. VESES OF THE DAYS OF THE WEEK - e.g. experiencing bleeding on Sunday, three weeks later on Sunday and three weeks later on Sunday. The day of the week fixes the Veses and therefore three times suffices to create a Veses (RAMBAN to Nidah 64a citing TOSFOS).
(c) Each of the above Vestos can be expressed in a number of ways (a "sub-Veses"):
1. L'DILUGIN (Incremental) - Where the Haflagah, calendar date or day of the week increases incrementally, e.g. Haflagos of 11, 12 and 13 days.
2. L'SEIRUGIN (Alternating) - Where the Veses occurs every other time, e.g. every second Rosh Chodesh
3. L'SHA'AH KEVU'AH - Where the Veses occurs at a certain time of day, e.g. eating garlic at sunrise (BEIS YOSEF, beg. of YD 189, citing the RA'AVAD in BA'ALEI HA'NEFESH)
4. TZEIRUF (Combination) - A Veses that is established by a combination of two factors (such as was described above, (b):3)
(d) There are two differences between a Veses Kavu'a and a Veses she'Eino Kavu'a:
1. When a woman has a Veses Kavu'a, she is not Metamei me'Es l'Es (i.e. she does not become Teme'ah retroactively for twenty-four hours), whereas if she has a Veses she'Eino Kavu'a, some Tana'im rule that she is Teme'ah retroactively me'Es l'Es.
2. According to the opinion that "Vestos are mid'Oraisa" (Nidah 16a), when a woman has a Veses Kavu'a and she did not do an internal examination on that date, but rather afterwards, even if she found no blood, she is nevertheless Teme'ah.
17) [line 41] דיה שעתה DAYAH SHA'ATAH - we are only Metamei Terumah and Kodshim from that moment on (and not retroactively)
18) [line 42] מפהקת MEFAHEKES - (a) (O.F. estendeillier) she stretches (RASHI); (b) she yawns (TOSFOS)
19) [line 42] ומעטשת ME'ATESHES - she sneezes
20) [line 43] וחוששת CHOSHESHES - she feels a pain
21) [line 43] בפי כריסה B'FI KEREISAH - against her navel
22) [line 43] ובשפולי מעיה SHIPULEI ME'EHA - (a) the womb (RASHI); (b) [a fleshy elevation at] the lower end of her abdomen (RASHI to Yevamos 80b)
23) [line 44] ושופעת SHOFA'AS - if she has a continuous flow of blood
24) [line 44] צמרמורות TZEMARMOROS - (O.F. fricons) chills
25) [line 44] אוחזין OCHAZIN OSAH - seize her
26) [line 1] בשופעת דם טמא מתוך דם טהור B'SHOFA'AS DAM TAMEI MI'TOCH DAM TAHOR - with a woman whose flow of blood regularly changes from Tahor (e.g. whitish-yellow) to Tamei (e.g. red)
27) [line 4] ורותתת ROSESES - trembles
28) [line 5] וגוסה GOSAH - (O.F. badaillier) yawns (RASHI)
29) [line 6] למה שלא מנו חכמים שלשה L'MAH SHE'LO MANU CHACHAMIM, SHELOSHAH - for that which the Chachamim did not enumerate, she needs three [times]
30) [line 13] כססה פלפלים KASESAH PILPELIM - she chewed peppercorns
31) [line 13] אמר רב יוסף לא שמיע לי AMAR RAV YOSEF LO SHEMI'A LI... - Rav Yosef said, "I do not know that teaching." After Rav Yosef forgot all of his learning due to illness, his student, Abaye, often questioned Rav Yosef's statements based on teachings that he had heard himself from Rav Yosef before his illness, or based on statements of other Amora'im or Tana'im that Rav Yosef might have forgotten, and, consequently, Abaye was able to help Rav Yosef regain all of his knowledge
32) [line 16] היתה למודה להיות רואה HAYESAH LEMUDAH LIHEYOS RO'AH - she routinely experienced bleeding
33) [line 37] מן המנחה ולמעלה MIN HA'MINCHAH UL'MA'ALAH - (a) from noon until sunset (RASHI); (b) from half-an-hour after noon until sunset (TOSFOS)
34) [line 43] "והזרתם את בני ישראל מטומאתם" "V'HIZARTEM ES BNEI YISRAEL MI'TUM'ASAM..." - "Thus shall you separate the people of Israel from their uncleanness; [that they do not die because of their uncleanness, when they defile My Tabernacle that is among them.]" (Vayikra 15:31)
35) [line 44] סמוך לוסתן SAMUCH L'VESTAH - the day or night that is adjacent to the time that she regularly has her period
36) [line 44] וכמה? אמר (רבא) [רבה] עונה V'CHAMAH? AMAR (RAVA) [RABAH] ONAH - And how much [time is termed "Samuch"]? one twelve-hour period of time (RASHI) (RASHI to Pesachim 113b DH Onah writes one night and one day; however see RASHBAM there.)
37) [last line] שתעקר TE'AKER - it is "uprooted" (by the woman not experiencing bleeding three times)