BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
[58a - 48 lines; 58b - 51 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara and Rashi.
 Rashi 58b DH Hachi Garsinan, vekami'Palgei :ד"ה הכי גרסינן וקמי פלגי (at the end of the page):
The words "ked'Amar" כדאמר
should be "ked'Amrinan" כדאמרינן
1) [line 2] דבר שאינו מקבל טומאה DAVAR SHE'EINO MEKABEL TUM'AH
(a) The Torah states that utensils made of certain types of material can become Teme'im if they are touched by a person or object that is an Av ha'Tum'ah, of if they are under the same Ohel as a dead person (Vayikra 11:32, Bamidbar 31:20). This includes utensils made of wood, fabric (wool, linen, canvas, etc.), leather, sack (made of goat hair), and bone.
(b) However, since the Torah compares the above mentioned materials to a sack ("Sak"), they must have certain qualities in common with a sack in order to become Tamei (Gemara Chagigah 26b). Among these qualities are:
1. The object must have a receptacle, i.e. an area in which it can contain other objects, as opposed to a flat board (with the exception of a "Tavla ha'Mis'hapeches" - see ). Objects that do not have receptacles are called "Peshutei Klei Etz."
2. It must not be large enough to hold 40 Se'ah, for if it is that large it cannot be transported when filled, as opposed to a sack, which is made to be transported either empty or full.
3. It must be an object that is sometimes transported, and not one that is always stationary. If it is left stationary, it is called a "Kli he'Asuy l'Nachas" and is not Mekabel Tum'ah.
(c) Examples of Davar she'Eino Mekabel Tum'ah are stone utensils, Peshutei Klei Etz, natural ground and things that are attached to the ground.
2) [line 5] גלימא GELIMA - a cloak or coat
3) [line 12] זימנין ZIMNIN - there are times
4) [line 14] בצוארה TZAVARAH - with her neck
5) [line 15] כתפה KESEFAH - her shoulder
6) [line 17] דבהדי דפסעה DEB'HADI D'PAS'AH - while she is walking
7) [line 18] עביד דמתרמי AVID D'MISRAMI - it happens [that her big toe is underneath Oso Makom and the blood drips on it]
8) [line 19] קשרי אצבעותיה KISHREI ETZBE'OSEHA - the joints of her fingers
9) [line 20] עסקניות ASKANIYOS - busy, always inadvertently touching things
10) [line 22] דכולה עבידא דנגעה KULA AVIDA D'NAG'AH - the entire hand is apt to touch [the entire area, and blood may even get on the back of her hand]
11) [line 25] מקום חבק MEKOM CHEVEK - (a) (O.F. jaret) knee joint. The sinews in front and behind the knee joint provide the border between mibi'Fnim and the Tzedadim. These sinews are the Chevek (RASHI); (b) the place where the loop is attached to the sock (ARUCH as cited by TOSFOS); (c) the place where the leg meets the thigh in a squatting position. From this place inward is called mibi'Fnim (ibid.)
12a) [line 30] כשיר K'SHEIR - (a) blood in a circle like a bracelet (RASHI); (b) drops of blood in a circle like a bracelet (TUR Yoreh De'ah 190:9)
b) [line 30] כשורה K'SHURAH - (a) many straight lines of blood (RASHBAM); (b) drops of blood in a (straight) line (ROSH)
13) [line 31] ירכה YERECHAH - her thigh
14) [line 33] דעביד כרצועה D'AVID KI'RETZU'AH - shaped like a strap, vertically down her thigh, the normal way that blood from Oso Makom would be found on her thigh
15) [line 34] איתתא ITESA - woman
16) [line 34] במשתיתא MASHTISA - the warp threads of the loom, after being prepared to receive and be woven with the woof threads
17) [line 35] תיזיל ותיתי TEIZIL V'TEISI - she should move her hand back and forth in the way that she normally moves the loom, to check if the warp threads of the loom come close to her body while she is weaving
18) [line 36] אין שונין בטהרות EIN SHONIN B'TAHAROS - we do not try to recreate the situation that may have caused Tum'ah, in order to judge whether or not the person became Tamei
19) [line 12] מאכולת MA'ACHOLES - louse
20) [line 14] כגריס של פול KI'GRIS SHEL POL - like the size of a large bean that has been split in half, which makes it easier with which to measure (see Tiferes Yisrael to Nega'im 6:1:2)
21) [line 16] להגלע L'HIGALA - (a) to become moist (RASHI); (b) to be peeled open (BARTENURA)
22) [line 26] בקילור KILOR - (O.F. enplastre) a (reddish) ointment for the eyes, spread on bandages
23) [line 26] בשרף שקמה SERAF SHIKMAH - sap of the sycomore tree (or Egyptian fig)
24) [line 28] טבחים TABACHIM - butchers
25) [line 28] ניתז עליה NITAZ ALEHA - [blood] spurted on her
26) [line 34] וסדין SADIN - a bed sheet
27) [line 37] בפשפש PISHPESH - (O.F. punaise) bedbug
28) [line 37] כתורמוס K'TURMOS - the size of a lupine, a type of bean of the pea family
29) [line 37] ברית כרותה לו BRIS KERUSAH LO - a covenant has been made with it
30) [line 38] שכל המוללו מריח בו KOL HA'MOLELO MERI'ACH BO - anyone who rubs it between his fingers, smells it
31) [line 38] לענין תרומה L'INYAN TERUMAH (TERUMAH: HEFSEDO)
(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(b) A non-Kohen may not eat Terumah or Terumas Ma'aser. Even Kohanim and their families and slaves may not eat Terumah unless they and the Terumah are Tehorim (ritually pure). A Kohen who is Tamei who eats Terumah that is Tehorah is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, as is learned from the verse in Vayikra 22:9.
(c) If Terumah becomes Teme'ah, it may not be eaten, as the Torah states, "b'Chol Kodesh Lo Siga" (Vayikra 12:4). In addition, there is a Mitzvah to burn it (Shabbos 25a). The Rishonim argue whether this is a Mitzvah d'Oraisa or a Mitzvah d'Rabanan (see ). The Kohanim may benefit from it while it is being burned, such as by using it as fuel for a fire (Shabbos 25b).
(d) It is forbidden, by the Torah, to actively destroy Terumah and Kodshim or to cause them to become Teme'im, as is derived from the verse, "Es Mishmeres Terumosi" - "the guard of My Terumos" (Bamidbar 18:8), which implies that Terumah (and Kodshim) must be guarded.
(e) The Mishnah cited by our Gemara (Terumos 8:2) states that if a Kohen is eating Terumah and tastes that he has a Pishpesh in his mouth (which is prohibited to be eaten, since it is a Sheretz - see ), he is permitted to spit out whatever is in his mouth, even if the Terumah will be spoiled due to his actions.
32) [line 39] יפלוט YIFLOT - he should spit it out
33) [line 42] דדוקרת DOKRAS - a place that had many butcher shops, garbage heaps and creeping things
34) [line 44] בעד ועד בכלל AD V'AD BI'CHELAL
The word "Ad," "until," when used in any phrase, usually has two possible meanings. It may mean "Ad v'Ad bi'Chelal," "until and including [the target of the phrase]," or "Ad v'Lo Ad bi'Chelal" - "until but not including [the target of the phrase]."
35) [line 50] כגריס כיתר מכגריס KI'GRIS, K'YESER MIKI'GRIS - a Kesem that is the size of a Gris has the same Halachah as a Kesem that is larger than a Gris and is Tamei