BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
[48a - 43 lines; 48b - 50 lines]
1) [line 3] "[כי תקנה עבד עברי] שש שנים יעבד ובשביעית [יצא לחפשי חנם]" "[KI SIKNEH EVED IVRI] SHESH SHANIM YA'AVOD; UVA'SHEVI'IS [YEZTZEI LA'CHOFSHI CHINAM.]" - "[When you acquire a Jewish servant,] he shall work for six years; and in the seventh [he shall go free without having to pay.]" (Shemos 21:2) - The Eved Ivri works for six full years even if the last year includes part of the seventh calendar year of his servitude.
2) [line 6] ערכין ERCHIN
(a) An Erech (endowment valuation) refers to a special form of vow. If a person declares, "Erech Ploni Alai" - "I accept upon myself to give the endowment value of so-and-so [to Hekdesh]," he must give the specific value that the Torah designates for the person's gender and age group as stated in Vayikra 27:1-8 (see below, (b)). It makes no difference at all whether the person is healthy or sick, strong or weak.
(b) The Erech that the Torah specifies for children between the ages of one month and five years is five Shekalim for males and three Shekalim for females (Vayikra 27:6). For youths and young adults between the ages of five years and twenty years, the Erech that the Torah specifies is twenty Shekalim for males and ten Shekalim for females (Vayikra 27:5). For adults between the ages of twenty years and sixty years, the Erech that the Torah specifies is fifty Shekalim for males and thirty Shekalim for females (Vayikra 27:3-4). For adults over sixty years of age, the Erech that the Torah specifies is fifteen Shekalim for males and ten Shekalim for females (Vayikra 27:7).
3) [line 17] אזכה ואיסק EZKEH V'EISAK - [May it be HaSh-m's will that] I will merit to go up [to Eretz Yisrael]
4) [line 17] פומיה דמרא PUMEI D'MARA - the mouth of the master [of this Halachah (Rebbi Elazar)]
5) [line 36] חייש למיעוטא CHAYISH L'MI'UTA (REBBI ME'IR CHAYISH L'MI'UTA)
Rebbi Meir is of the opinion that we do not follow the majority if there is a Safek (a doubt), but rather we consider the matter to be still in doubt. (According to one opinion in TOSFOS, Rebbi Meir only considers it a Safek mid'Rabanan, for according to the Torah we can rely on a Rov - Tosfos to Chulin 12a DH Pesach, and to Chulin 86b DH Semoch. Tosfos to Bechoros 19b DH b'Ruba implies that Rebbi Meir's law is mid'Oraisa, but it pertains only to a Ruba d'Leisa Kaman - see , Bechoros 19:11b.)
6) [line 39] מנתר הוא דנתר MINTAR HU D'NASAR - they fell out
7) [line 39] "שדים נכונו ושערך צמח" "SHADAYIM NACHONU U'SE'AREICH TZIME'ACH" - "breasts developed and your hair has grown" (Yechezkel 16:7)
8) [line 41] "[ותפקדי את זמת נעוריך] בעשות ממצרים דדיך למען שדי נעוריך" "[VA'TIFKEDI ES ZIMAS NE'URAYICH;] BA'ASOS MI'MITZRAYIM DADAYICH, L'MA'AN SHDEI NE'URAYICH" - [You remembered the lewdness of your youth;] when your breasts were rubbed by the Egyptians, for the sake of being lewd with you when the maturity of your youth would come forth (lit., for the sake of the breasts of your youth) (Yechezkel 23:21)
9) [line 1] איכרפו IKARFU - (a) when they began to develop (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) they became swollen [from the rubbing of the Egyptians] (RASHI, 2nd explanation)
10) [line 1] אישתדו ISHTADU - (a) they became fully developed (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) they dried up (RASHI, 2nd explanation)
11) [line 4] "... איש או אשה כי יעשו מכל חטאות האדם ..." "… ISH O ISHAH KI YA'ASU MI'KOL CHATOS HA'ADAM ..." - "[Speak to the people of Yisrael,] When a man or woman shall commit any sin that people commit, [and is treacherous against HaSh-m; and that person shall become guilty.]" (Bamidbar 5:6) - See next entry.
12) [line 5] השוה הכתוב אשה לאיש לכל עונשין שבתורה HISHVAH HA'KASUV ISHAH L'ISH L'CHOL ONSHIN SHEB'TORAH
The Torah equates a woman with a man with regard to all of the punishments in the Torah. Although there is a rule that women are exempt from time-related positive Mitzvos ("Mitzvos Aseh sheha'Zeman Gerama"), with regard to negative Mitzvos (Mitzvos Lo Sa'aseh) women have the same degree of liability as men. Just as men are liable for all Mitzvos Lo Sa'aseh, so, too, are women.
13) [line 12] בנות כרכים BNOS KERAKIM - girls who grow up in big cites
14) [line 16] שנישוף באפקריסותן SHE'NISHOF B'AFKARISOSAN - they were rubbed (and caused to develop) (O.F. freier) by the sashes worn by daughters of the wealthy
15) [line 19] גססיהן GISESEIHEN - their sides
16) [line 23] חזר לאיתנו CHAZAR L'EISANO - it went back to its normal state
17a) [line 26] לפני הפרק LIFNEI HA'PEREK - before the period of "Onas Nedarim," when their vows are checked; i.e. before they are eleven years old
b) [line 26] ולאחר הפרק UL'ACHAR HA'PEREK - and after they are twelve years old
c) [line 27] תוך הפרק TOCH HA'PEREK - during the period when their vows are checked, i.e. in their twelvth year
18) [line 36] שומא SHUMA - [hairs that grow as a result of] a mole (O.F. verrue)