BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
[29a - 48 lines; 29b - 25 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara and Rashi.
 Rashi 29b DH Beis Shamai l'Ta'amaihu [at the end of the page] : ד"ה בית שמאי לטעמייהו
The words "mi'Yom she'Ba'as Lefaneinu" מיום שבאת לפנינו belong above, after the words "Kol Leilya" כל ליליא
1) [line 6] אין הראש פוטר בנפלים EIN HA'ROSH POTER B'NEFALIM
A stillborn is not considered to be born with the emergence of its head with regard to exempting the next, live birth from Pidyon ha'Ben; only when a majority of the body emerges is it considered born to exempt the child born afterwards from Bechorah.
2) [line 33] כתקנו לחיים K'TIKUNO L'CHAYIM - the head of the Nefel must leave the womb whole, as the head of a live child appears (RASHI DH Ela Amar, see )
3) [line 35] צדעיו TZEDA'AV - (O.F. tenples) its temples
4) [line 35] פדחתו PADACHTO - its forehead
5) [line 36] קרני ראשו KARNEI ROSHO - the ends of its skull bone, above the back of the neck (of the three amounts listed for the protrusion of the head, this is the furthest amount)
6) [line 38] מביאה קרבן MEVI'AH KORBAN (KORBAN YOLEDES)
(a) In Vayikra 12:1-8 the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. (The same Halachos apply to a woman who miscarries after the fetus has reached a certain stage of development.) After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages: 1. During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is permitted to eat Terumah, if she is the wife of a Kohen. 2. During the second stage, any blood that she sees does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. The blood that she sees during this period is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.
(b) At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see ). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even during the period of Dam Tohar - see .)
7) [line 40] בשלא הוחזקה עוברה BESHE'LO HUCHZEKAH UBRAH - [the case is one] in which it had not been established that she was pregnant
8) [line 43] פשוט הוא PASHUT HU - a "simple" offspring, i.e. not a Bechor
9) [line 45] מטנפות METANFOS - emit a liquid substance (O.F. glaire)
10) [last line] מתיב רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא "טועה" MESIV REBBI YOSI B'REBBI CHANINA, "TO'AH" - Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina asked a question from the case of "the confused woman." It appears in its entirety on Daf 29b-30a. She was pregnant when she left, but returned without a child and not pregnant anymore. Since she arrived, three weeks passed in which she experienced no bleeding. For the next ten weeks (4-13), she bled every day during the even-numbered weeks and not at all during the odd-numbered weeks. She does not know what happened to her before she arrived, and as a result must keep many laws of immersions and separations from her husband.
11) [line 1] הביאה לפנינו שלשה שבועין HEVI'AH LEFANEINU SHELOSHAH SHEVU'IN ... - and after the woman came before us, she did not experience bleeding for three weeks. Subsequently, for ten weeks she experienced bleeding every day of every other week (i.e. weeks #4, 6, 8, 10, 12) and experienced no bleeding at all during the intervening weeks (#5, 7, 9, 11, 13) - see Charts to Nidah 29
12) [line 3] משמשת לאור שלשים וחמש MESHAMESHES L'OR SHELOSHIM V'CHAMESH - the only day that she is permitted to her husband throughout the thirteen week period, is the evening of the day #35.
13) [line 6] דיה לטבילה שתהא באחרונה DAYAH L'TEVILAH SHE'TEHEI BA'ACHARONAH - Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah rules that Tevilah bi'Zemanah Lav Mitzvah. She need not immerse at the first opportunity for each possible sequence of Tum'ah, and as such must immerse only once after all of the possible sequences have passed (which is at the end of three weeks, had she been a Zavah when she miscarried a female fetus).
14) [line 9] יולדת נקבה בזוב היא YOLEDES NEKEVAH B'ZOV HI (YOLEDES B'ZOV)
(a) A woman who has labor pains and experiences bleeding is not a Zavah as long as she gives birth due to the labor. The blood is known as "Dam Kishuy." If the labor pains stop after she bleeds on three consecutive days, it is possible that she will be "Yoledes b'Zov" when she gives birth. The Halachah understands that since the labor pains stopped, the three days of bleeding are considered Dam Zivus, as long as there is a prominent interval between the end of her flow and the day that she gave birth. The Tana'im argues as to how long the interval must be when she is not in labor for her to be considered a Yoledes b'Zov.
(b) By Torah Law, a woman who gives birth may immerse in a Mikvah after her Yemei Tum'ah (seven days upon the birth of a boy and fourteen days upon the birth of a girl). Blood that she experiences after the Yemei Tum'ah is Dam Tohar and she is Tehorah, until she experiences bleeding forty-one days after the birth of a boy or eighty-one days after the birth of a girl (see above, entry #6).
(c) The laws of Yemei Taharah do not apply if she had been a Zavah before she gave birth. Under such circumstances, she remains Teme'ah after the birth until she counts seven clean days when she experiences no bleeding. According to some, a Yoledes b'Zov must begin her count of seven clean days after the Yemei Tum'ah have ended (here and Daf 37a). Others rule that the count of clean days may begin during the Yemei Tum'ah, if the blood flow has stopped.
15) [line 20] לאורתא תשמש L'URTA TESHAMESH - let her be permitted to her husband the following evening (the evening before the 22nd day)
16) [line 22] אימר יולדת זכר היא EIMAR YOLEDES ZACHAR HI - that is, she may have given birth to a male child seven days ago - or to a female child 14 days ago
17) [line 23] ביממא, אימר יולדת זכר בזוב היא B'YEMAMA, EIMAR YOLEDES ZACHAR B'ZOV HI - the rule is as follows: All Tevilos are normally performed after nightfall except for the Tevilah of a Zavah, which is performed during the day
18) [last line] טבולת יום ארוך בעי טבילה TEVULAS YOM ARUCH BA'I TEVILAH
Although a woman immerses at the end of her days of Tum'ah, she does not become Tehorah to eat Terumah and Kodshim or to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash until the end of her days of Tohar. During this period of time, she is referred to as a Tevulas Yom Aruch. Beis Shamai rules that upon the completion of this period she must immerse again in a Mikvah in order to eat Terumah and enter the Mikdash, whereas Beis Hillel argues. (According to everyone, she must immerse before eating Kodshim.)