BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Yerushalayim
[44a - 12 lines; 44b - 8 lines]
1) [last line] V'HADRIN BEHON - and go back on what they said; i.e. they reclaim the Hefker for themselves
2) [line 4] PERET
Individual (one or two) grapes that fall during the harvest may not be gathered by the owner of the vine but must be left for the poor, as stated in Vayikra (19:10), "...u'Feret Karmecha Lo Selaket, le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam." ("...nor shall you gather the fallen grapes of your vineyard; you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger.")
3) [line 4] OLELOS
Olelos are incompletely-formed grape clusters, in which no grapes hang from the tip of the central stem, and the grapes on the side-stems that part from the central stem do not lie on one another. These clusters must be left behind on the vine for the poor, as stated in Vayikra (19:10), "v'Charmecha Lo Se'olel...le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam." ("And you shall not glean your vineyard...you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger.")
4) [line 5] SHIKCHAH
If one or two bundles of grain were forgotten in the field when the other bundles were collected, they must be left for the poor, as described in Devarim (24:19). Also, one may not backtrack to harvest a row previously overlooked.
5) [line 5] PE'AH
The corner, or end, of the harvest must be left in the field for the poor, as it states "Lo Sechaleh Pe'as Sadecha Liktzor...le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam." - "Do not completely harvest the corner of your field...you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger." (Vayikra 19:9-10)
6) [line 5] MA'ASER
(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(b) The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been removed. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim.
(c) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.
(e) Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.
Index to Background for Maseches Nedarim