[4a - 39 lines; 4b - 53 lines]

1)[line 11]משקין (המשתכרין) [המשכרים]MASHKIN (HA'MISHTAKRIN) [HA'MESHAKRIN]- intoxicating beverages

2)[line 12]דבילה קעיליתDEVEILAH KE'ILIS- preserved figs from Ke'ilah (which are intoxicating)

3)[line 14]איסור חל על איסורISUR CHAL AL ISUR

(a)An object that is already prohibited by one Isur Torah cannot become prohibited by a second one (Ein Isur Chal Al Isur). However, there are a number of possible exceptions to this principle (when we rule Isur Chal Al Isur) that are debated by the Tana'im (Chulin 101a):

1.Isur b'Vas Achas - Two Isurim may take effect at the same instant to prohibit the same object.

2.Isur Kollel - The second Isur may take effect if it includes objects that the first Isur did not (e.g. Yom ha'Kipurim prohibits not only the eating of Neveilos, but Kosher foods as well).

3.Isur Mosif - The second Isur may take effect if it adds a new dimension of Isur to the first (e.g. it prohibits the object to people who were not included in the first Isur, or it makes the object Asur b'Hana'ah and not just Asur to be eaten).

4.Isur Chamur (according to Rebbi Yehudah) - A more stringent Isur can take effect on an object that is already prohibited by a less stringent Isur (e.g. the prohibition of Gid ha'Nasheh is more stringent than the prohibition of non-Kosher animals, since it applied to Bnei Yakov when they were still permitted to eat non-Kosher animals).

(b)According to Rebbi Shimon, an object that is already prohibited can never become prohibited by another Isur, even if the second Isur is Kolel, Mosif, or Chamur.

4)[line 23]נזיר שמשוןNEZIR SHIMSHON

A Nezir Shimshon is a Nazir until the end of his life (see next entry), except that he may come in contact with a corpse (and does not have to bring a Korban for doing so). He is never allowed to cut his hair or drink wine.

5)[line 29]נזיר עולםNEZIR OLAM

(a)If someone says "I am a Nazir forever" or "I am a Nazir all the days of my life," he becomes a Nezir Olam and is a Nazir until the end of his life. Like a normal Nazir, he is not allowed to 1. cut his hair; 2. become Tamei by touching, or being in the same room as, a corpse; or 3. consume any products of the grapevine.

(b)A Nezir Olam differs from a normal Nazir in that he may cut off some of his hair at the end of every twelve months when his hair becomes heavy, but he may not shave it off completely. On the day that he cuts his hair, he brings the three Korbanos that a normal Nazir brings at the completion of the Nezirus period, namely a Chatas, an Olah, and a Shelamim (see Background to Nazir 2:1a:c). If he becomes Tamei, he brings a Korban Tum'ah, shaves his hair and starts his Nezirus anew (just like any Nazir who becomes Tamei - see Background to Nazir 2:1a:b and RAMBAM Nezirus 3:12).

6)[line 30]הכביד שערו מיקל בתערHICHBID SA'ARO, MEIKEL B'SA'AR- if his hair became heavy (after twelve months), he can cut off some of it (lit. lighten it), with a razor

7)[line 30]שלש בהמותSHALOSH BEHEMOS- the same Chatas, Olah, and Shelamim brought by a normal Nazir when he completes his Nezirus


8)[line 13]כבכורBECHOR

(a)The Kedushah of Bechor rests on every firstborn male of an ox, goat or sheep when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a Mitzvah for a person to sanctify it himself (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.

(b)If the animal has no Mum (blemish), the Kohen must bring it as a Korban during its first year. After its blood and Emurim (see Background to Yevamos 7:8 and 100:9) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, its meat is eaten in Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night by Kohanim, their wives, children, and slaves.

(c)If the animal has a Mum, it must be slaughtered and eaten during its first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen can give it away or sell it, even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or weighed in the usual manner.

(d)Whether or not it has a Mum, it is forbidden to work with a Bechor or to shear it. Any fleece that is removed from a Bechor, even if it came off on its own, is Asur b'Hana'ah. If, upon Shechitah, the animal is found to be a Tereifah, it is Asur b'Hana'ah and must be buried.

(e)Now that there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. It may not be bought, however, in order to be sold for a profit (Sefer ha'Chinuch #393, #445).

9)[line 15]דבר הנידרDAVAR HA'NIDAR

(a)A Neder can be made by "connecting" an object that is permitted to another object which is prohibited, such as a Korban. (Some Rishonim refer to this as "a Neder performed through Hatpasah." Some Rishonim maintain that this is an integral part of the expression of a Neder without which the Neder is not binding. See Insights to Nedarim 2:2.)

(b)The Gemara (Nedarim 12a) explains that when making a Neder, one may only connect an object to a "Davar ha'Nadur" (or ha'Nidar), i.e. another object which has been prohibited either through a Neder or by becoming Hekdesh (consecrated). If one attempts to make a Neder by connecting an object to a "Davar ha'Asur," the Neder is not binding (Nedarim 14a). "Davar ha'Asur" in this context refers to an object which is not prohibited because of an Isur that a person placed upon it, but because of an Isur Torah that applied to it naturally (e.g. meat that was cooked with milk, or a non-Kosher animal).

10)[line 20]חטאתCHATAS

If a person commits a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he would be Chayav Kares if he would have committed it b'Mezid (intentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas. He brings a female goat or female sheep as his Korban Chatas.

11)[line 20]ואשםASHAM


The Torah specifies five cases where the Korban Asham Vadai is brought. The animal offered is usually a ram that costs at least two Sela'im. The first three involve transgressions:

1.ASHAM ME'ILOS: a person who has benefit from Hekdesh b'Shogeg must bring a Korban Asham, besides paying the amount he benefited plus a fine of Chomesh (Vayikra 5:14-16).

2.ASHAM GEZEILOS: a person who steals money from a fellow Jew, swears in Beis Din that he holds no such money and later admits his sin, must return what he stole, pay a fine of Chomesh, and bring a Korban Asham to receive atonement (Vayikra 5:20-26).

3.ASHAM SHIFCHAH CHARUFAH: a person who has relations with a Shifchah Charufah (e.g. a maidservant who was owned by two partners, and freed by one of them, who is betrothed to a Jewish slave) must bring a Korban Asham, whether he did the sin b'Mezid or b'Shogeg (Vayikra 19:20-22).

4.ASHAM NAZIR: this Korban (a sheep within its first year) is brought by a Nazir who becomes Tamei during his period of Nezirus (Bamidbar 6:12).

5.ASHAM METZORA: this Korban (a sheep within its first year) is brought by a Metzora upon the completion of his Taharah process (Vayikra 14:12).


If a person is in doubt whether or not he committed a transgression for which one must bring a Korban Chatas, he temporarily brings a Korban Asham Taluy, which is a ram worth two Sela'im (Vayikra 5:17-19). If he later discovers that he did indeed sin, he must offer a Korban Chatas; the Asham Taluy only provides temporary atonement during the period of doubt.

12)[line 22]מתפיסן בנדרMATPISAN B'NEDER- he causes them to become a Chatas or an Asham when he is obligated to bring a Chatas or an Asham, and he makes a Neder stating that this animal should be his Korban

13)[line 32]וטוב רואיV'TOV RO'I- and with a handsome appearance

14)[line 33]וקווצותיו סדורות לו תלתליםU'KEVUTZOSAV SEDUROS LO TALTALIM- and his curly hair was arranged in locks

15)[line 36]בבבואהBAVU'AH- the reflection

16)[line 36]ופחז יצרי עליPACHAZ YITZRI ALAI- my Evil Inclination rose within me (in pride of my good looks)

17)[line 37]לטורדני מן העולםL'TORDENI MIN HA'OLAM- to drive me out of the World [to Come]

18)[line 39]רמה ותולעRIMAH V'SOLE'AH- [food for] worms

19)[line 39]העבודהHA'AVODAH- I swear (by the service of the Beis ha'Mikdash)

20)[line 42]"... איש כי יפליא לנדור נדר נזיר להזיר לה'""... ISH... KI YAFLI LINDOR NEDER NAZIR L'HAZIR LA'HASH-M."- "[Speak to the people of Yisrael, and say to them,] 'When either man [or woman] shall separate themselves to vow a vow of Nezirus, to separate themselves for HaSh-m.'" (Bamidbar 6:2)

21)[line 43]"כי הנך הרה וילדת בן ומורה לא יעלה על ראשו כי נזיר אלקים יהיה הנער מן הבטן והוא יחל להושיע את ישראל מיד פלשתים""KI HINACH HARAH V'YOLAD'T BEN, U'MORAH LO YA'ALEH AL ROSHO, KI NEZIR ELOKIM YIHEYEH HA'NA'AR MIN HA'BATEN, V'HU YACHEL L'HOSHI'A ES YISRAEL MI'YAD PELISHTIM" - "Because you will become pregnant and give birth to a son; a razor shall not pass over his head, for the lad will be a Nazir from birth, and he will begin to save Yisrael from the hands of the Pelishtim." (Shoftim 13:5) (MANO'ACH'S WIFE AND THE ANGEL)

(a)An angel appeared to Mano'ach's wife, who had been barren, informing her that she was about to become pregnant and give birth to a son who would rescue Yisrael from the heavy yoke placed upon them by the Philistines. However, during her pregnancy she was to abstain from wine and to refrain from eating anything that was Tamei. The verse adds how the Nezirus would affect the son when he would be born.

(b)Interestingly, the moment he abrogated his Nezirus by divulging to his wife Delilah that his unshaven hair was the secret of his strength, information that she used in the service of her people, his strength left him, and it was the beginning of the end for him.

22)[line 46]"ויאמר שמשון בלחי החמור חמור חמרתים בלחי החמור הכיתי אלף איש""VA'YOMER SHIMSHON BI'LECHI HA'CHAMOR CHAMOR CHAMOROSAYIM, BI'LECHI HA'CHAMOR HIKEISI ELEF ISH" - "And Shimshon said, 'With the jawbone of the donkey I formed piles [of corpses]; with the jawbone of the donkey I smote a thousand men." (Shoftim 15:16) (THE DEADLY JAWBONE OF A DONKEY)

After the men of Yehudah delivered Shimshon (with his consent), bound with thick ropes, to the Pelishtim, they led him as far as a place called Lechi, at which point the jubilant Pelishtim came out to meet the home-coming group with triumphant trumpet blasts. This scenario soon changed, however, when Shimshon effortlessly snapped the ropes. Seeing a fresh Lechi (jawbone [from which the thirsty hero would later extract water to drink - see Sotah 9b]), he picked it up and began to lay about the Pelishtim, left, right, and center, until a thousand of the enemy lay dead before him. The rest fled in panic. (See Background to Moed Katan 18:43.)

23)[line 47]גרויי גרי בהוGERUYEI GARU VEHU- he threw it at them from a distance (TOSFOS); alt. Girsa: GORDUYEI GARDI VEHON - he split their heads open with the end of the jawbone (and retracted it before coming into contact with their dead bodies) (ARUCH, MEFARESH, RADAK to Shoftim 14:19)

24)[line 48]"ותצלח עליו רוח ה' וירד אשקלון ויך מהם שלשים איש ויקח את חליצותם ויתן החליפות למגידי החידה ויחר אפו ויעל בית אביהו""V'TITZLACH ALAV RU'ACH HASH-M, VA'YERED ASHKELON VA'YACH MEHEM SHELOSHIM ISH, VA'YIKACH MEHEM CHALITZOSAM, VA'YITEN HA'CHALIFOS L'MAGIDEI HA'CHIDAH, VA'YICHAR APO, VA'YA'AL BEIS AVIHU" - "Then the spirit of HaSh-m rested on him, and he went down to Ashkelon and struck down thirty of their men, and took their garments, which he gave to those who had solved the riddle. His wrath flared up and he went up to his father's house." (Shoftim 14:19)

See Background to Moed Katan 18:43.

25)[line 49]חליצותםCHALITZOSAM- their clothes, weapons, etc.

26)[line 49]אשלחינוןASHLECHINUN- he took of their clothes

27)[last line]"... [והיה] מקץ ימים לימים אשר יגלח כי כבד עליו וגלחו...""... (VA'YEHI) [V'HAYAH] MI'KETZ YAMIM L'YAMIM ASHER YEGALE'ACH KI CHAVED ALAV V'GILCHO..."- "[And when he shaved his head,] for it was at every year's end [that he shaved it, because the hair was heavy on him, therefore he shaved it; he weighed the hair of his head at two hundred Shekels according to the king's weight.]" (Shmuel II 14:26)