ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) Mar Keshisha b'rei de'Rav Chisda asked Abaye what Rebbi Meir learns from the Pasuk in Yeshayah (following the death of Sancheriv) "ba'Yom ha'Hu Yih'yeh Mizbe'ach la'Hashem be'Soch Eretz Mitzrayim ... ". He replied, based on another Pasuk there "ba'Yom ha'Hu Yih'yu Chamesh Arim ... " - that it refers to five princes of five Egyptian towns whom Chizkiyah found sitting (in chains) in golden wagons, (see Rashi, Yeshayah 19:18).
(b) They spoke Lashon ha'Kodesh, and Chizkiyah made them swear that they would stop serving Avodah-Zarah, before setting them free.
(c) They went from there to Alexandria and built a Mizbe'ach for Hash-m.
(d) When the Pasuk writes there "Ir ha'Heres Yomar le'Achas", according to Rav Yosef's official translation - it is referring to Beis-Shemesh (since 'Heres', like 'Cheres' can also mean 'sun'), which was one of the towns over which the princes ruled. (Apparently, there was a Beis-Shemesh in Egypt).
(a) Rav Huna explains the Pasuk in Yeshayah ...
1. ... "Havi'u Banai me'Rachok" with reference to - the return of the exiles from Bavel, where they were relatively well treated, and who therefore had peace of mind, like sons.
2. ... "u'Venosai mi'Ketzei ha'Aretz" with reference to - the return of the exiles from other countries, where they were badly treated, and who had no peace of mind, like daughters.
(b) Rav Chisda or (Rav) states that the people who reside ...
1. ... between Tzur (Tyre) and Cartigni (Carthage) - acknowledged both Yisrael and Hash-m, whereas those who reside ...
2. ... west of Tzur and east of Cartigni - did not.
(c) When Rav Chisda says that the former acknowledged ...
1. ... 'Yisrael', he means - that they dealt with them with a light hand (more so than the other nations.
2. ... 'their Father in Heaven', he means - that they worshipped Him and not idols.
(a) When Rav Shimi bar Chiya queried this from the Pasuk in Malachi "mi'Mizrach Shemesh ve'ad Mevo'o Gadol Sh'mi ba'Goyim", Rav responded with 'Shimi At'? He did that, because, due to his extreme modesty, he was not accustomed to looking outside his four Amos, and therefore did not see him (Rabeinu Gershom).
(b) Rav explained that what the Pasuk means is - that, from east to west, the people referred to Him as the 'G-d of gods', but not that they necessarily worshipped him.
(c) The Pasuk there continues "be'Chol Makom Muktar Mugash li'Shemi". Based on the fact that, as we just explained, not all the Nochrim everywhere sacrifice to Hash-m, Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeini Amar Rebbi Yehonasan interprets the Pasuk - with regard to Talmidei-Chachamim, who study Torah wherever they are, and whom Hash-m considers as if they had brought Korbanos before Him.
(d) And he interprets the conclusion of the Pasuk "u'Minchah Tehorah" - with regard to those who study Torah with purity of mind, by marrying young, and then continuing with their studies.
(a) Rebbi Yochanan explains the Pasuk in Tehilim "Shir ha'Ma'alos Hinei Barchu es Hash-m Kol Avdei Hash-m ha'Omdim be'Veis Hash-m ba'Leilos" with reference to - Talmidei-Chachamim, who study Torah at night-time, and who Hash-m considers as if they were performing the Avodah.
(b) The Pasuk in Divrei ha'Yamim "Le'olam Zos al Yisrael" refers to the Korbanos. Bearing in mind that after the Churban Beis Hamikdash, the Avodah ceased, Rav Gidal Amar Rav explains the Pasuk - with reference to the arch-angel Micha'el, who stands and sacrifices on a Mizbe'ach in Heaven (see Tosfos DH 'u'Micha'el').
(c) Rebbi Yochanan however, establishes this Pasuk too, with regard to Talmidei-Chachamim - whose study of Hilchos Avodah is considered as if the Beis-Hamikdash had been built in their days.
(a) When Resh Lakish explained the Pasuk in Vayikra "Zos ha'Torah, la'Olah, la'Minchah ve'la'Chatas ve'la'Asham" to mean that whenever someone studies Torah, it is as if he had brought an Olah, a Minchah a Chatas or an Asham, Rava objected on the grounds - that the Torah ought to have then written "Zos ha'Torah, Olah, Minchah ... " (without the 'Vavin').
(b) According to Rava therefore, what the Pasuk means is - that whoever studies Torah, will not require an Olah, a Minchah a Chatas or an Asham (become the Torah that he studies will atone for his sins).
(c) Rebbi Yitzchak explains the Pasuk in Tzav "Zos Toras ha'Chatas ... ve'Zos Toras ha'Asham" to mean - that whenever someone studies the Halachos of Chatas or the Halachos of Asham (i.e. Seider Kodshim), it is as if he had actually brought one.
(a) From the fact that the Torah writes "Ishei Re'ach Ni'cho'ach la'Hashem" by an Olas Beheimah, by an Olas ha'Of and by a Minchah, our Mishnah learns - that it is not the size of the gift that matters, but the fact that one gives it le'Shem Shamayim.
(b) Rebbi Zeira quotes the Pasuk "Mesukah Shinas ha'Oved, Im Me'at ve'Im Harbeh Yochal" because, based on the fact that 'ha'Oved' refers to someone who brings a Korban, the Pasuk teaches us - that irrespective of the size of one's Korban, the person who brings it will sleep sweetly, in the knowledge that he will receive his reward from Hash-m.
(c) Rav Ada bar Ahavah quotes the Pasuk in Koheles "bi'Revos ha'Tovah (with reference to Korbanos) Rabu Ochlehah (the Kohanim), u'Mah Kishron le'Ba'alehah ki im Re'us Einav". The latter half of the Pasuk means - that what pleases the Master (Hash-m) is when He sees that the owner gives his gift with a good eye (generously).
(a) According to Rebbi Shimon ben Azai, the Torah always uses the Name of Havayah with regard to Korbanos ("Ishei Re'ach Ni'cho'ach la'Hashem") and never Keil or Elokim (or any other of the Holy Names of Hash-m) - to prevent the misconception that there are many gods demanding Korbanos (Chas ve'Shalom [one is called Elokim, another Keil and a third one, Shakai]).
(b) ben Azai also comments - that the Torah writes "Ishei Re'ach Ni'cho'ach la'Hashem" in connection with 'a large animal, a small bird and a Minchah', to teach us that it is not the size of the gift that matters, but the fact that one gives it le'Shem Shamayim (as we leaned in our Mishnah).
(c) And from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Im Er'av Lo Ochal lach ... " he learns - that the purpose of the Korbanos is not to feed Hash-m, who does not need to eat.
(a) Although Hash-m (Kevayachol) does not need our Korbanos, He nevertheless asks us to bring Korbanos - in order to carry out His will.
(b) And from the Pasuk in Kedoshim "li'Retzonchem Tizbachuhu", ben Azai learns - that this does not mean that He needs the Korbanos, and that when we perform His will, He will reciprocate by performing our's; but that it is His will that we bring Him Korbanos purely for our benefit, so that we should have a Kaparah.
(a) Shmuel asked Rav Huna for the source of the ruling 'Mis'asek be'Kodshim Pasul' - which means that a person means to do something else but ends up Shechting an animal of Kodshim.
(b) In reply, Rav Huna quoted the Pasuk in Vayikra "Ve'shachat es ben ha'Bakar" - which teaches us that when it comes to Kodshim, one must have in mind to Shecht the bull (and not to perform some other act [such as throwing a knife, or even Shechting Chulin]).
(c) On which Shmuel commented that - he already knew that, and what he really was looking for was a source to prove that it is Pasul even Bedi'eved.
(d) In reply, Rav Huna quoted him the Pasuk - "li'Retzonchem Tizbachuhu" (meaning that the Shechitah must be performed with the intention of obtaining a Kaparah) ...
(e) ... and we have a principle in Kodshim that when the Torah repeats something, it is Me'akev Bedi'eved.
Hadran Alach 'Harei Alai Isaron, u'Selika lah Maseches Menachos'