POINT BY POINT OUTLINE
prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
1) "KODSHEI KODOSHIM" ARE EQUATED TO EACH OTHER
(a) (Continuation of R. Eliezer's teaching): Just like only male Kohanim eat Minchah, the same applies to all these Korbanos.
1. Question: Which Korbanos do we learn from this?
2. Answer #1: We learn about Chatas and Asham.
3. Rejection: Another verse explicitly teaches about them!
4. Answer #2: We learn about Shalmei Tzibur.
5. Question: Another verse teaches about them!
i. (Beraisa): "B'Kodesh ha'Kodoshim Tochalenu Kol Zachar Yochal Oso" teaches that only male Kohanim eat Shalmei Tzibur.
6. Answer: Tana'im argue about the source of this. Some learn from "b'Kodesh ha'Kodoshim..." R. Eliezer learns from the Hekesh to Minchah.
(b) Just like absorptions of Chatas forbid (if a food absorbs from Chatas, it has all the restrictions of the Chatas), also all Korbanos.
(c) Just like there is no Kedushah to a fetus or fetal sac inside an Asham (it is male, so it cannot have a fetus or fetal sac inside), there is no Kedushah to a fetus or fetal sac inside any Korban;
1. R. Eliezer holds that the child of a Korban is not Kodesh until it is born, and that we learn possible from impossible.
(d) Just like Nosar meat of Milu'im must be burned, but not Mosar (live) animals, the same applies to all Korbanos.
(e) Just like (intent Chutz li'Zmano in) Shelamim can be Mefagel (its Nesachim) and it can become Pigul, the same applies to all Korbanos.
(f) (Beraisa - R. Akiva): "Zos ha'Torah..." teaches that just like absorptions of Minchah forbid, also all Korbanos;
1. The Torah needed to teach about absorptions of Chatas and of Minchah;
i. Had it taught only about Minchah, one might have thought that only Minchah forbids, for it is soft, and it is easily absorbed;
ii. Had it taught only about Chatas, one might have thought only Chatas forbids, for fatty meat penetrates deeply.
(g) Just like Chatas must be brought from Chulin money, during the day, and using the right hand (for Zerikah), also all Korbanos.
1. Question: What is the source that Chatas must be from Chulin?
2. Answer (Rav Chisda): "V'Hikriv Aharon Es Par ha'Chatas Asher Lo" teaches that it must be his. It cannot be from Ma'aser. (This refers to Par Yom Kipur. All Chata'os have the same law.)
3. Question: "B'Yom Tzavoso..." teaches that all Korbanos must be brought during the day!
4. Answer: Indeed, we do not learn this from Chatas. It was taught for no reason.
5. Question: We learn the right hand from Rabah bar bar Chanah!
i. (Rabah bar bar Chanah): Whenever it says 'Etzba' or 'Kehunah' (by itself), this teaches that the right hand is required. (Regarding every Korban, it says 'Kohen'!)
6. Answer: Indeed, we do not learn this from Chatas. It was taught for no reason.
(h) Just like bones of Asham are permitted, also bones of all Korbanos, (The Torah permitted all the meat (except for the Eimurim) to Kohanim, and Nosar does not apply to the bones. Alternatively, we learn from "Lo Yihyeh".)
(i) Question: What does R. Akiva learn from "v'Zavachta Pesach"? (He does not need it to teach that Pesach comes from Chulin, like R. Eliezer did.)
(j) Answer: He learns Rav Nachman's law;
1. (Rav Nachman): Mosar Pesach (money Hukdash for Pesach that was not needed; alternatively, Chalifas Pesach) is offered like a Shelamim - "v'Zavachta Pesach...Tzon u'Vakar";
i. Question: Korban Pesach cannot be Bakar (cattle), only a lamb or goat!
ii. Answer: Rather, it teaches that Mosar Pesach becomes a Korban that can be (any, i.e. male or female) cattle or flock, i.e. Shelamim (Rashi in Zevachim; Rashi Kesav Yad - Pesach was Hukdash to be eaten, so its Mosar does not become an Olah.)
(k) Question #1: Shmuel's father gave a different source for this!
1. (Shmuel's father): "V'Im Min ha'Tzon" teaches that (Mosar of) something brought from Tzon (i.e. Pesach) is Shelamim.
(l) Question #2: There is a third source for this!
1. (Beraisa): "Keves" includes the tail of a lamb that is a Pesach. (It is considered Eimurim, so it is Huktar);
2. "Im Kesev" includes a Pesach above one year and a Shelamim that comes due to Pesach (Rashi - Mosar Pesach; Rashi Kesav Yad - the Chagigah of Erev Pesach, for satiation before eating the Pesach; Tosfos - Temuras Pesach);
i. These are like Shelamim in all respects, i.e. they require Semichah, Nesachim and Tenufah of the chest and foreleg.
3. "V'Im Ez" separates, to teach that the tail of a goat is not part of the Eimurim.
(m) Answer (to both questions): There are three verses. They teach about three kinds of Mosar Pesach (all become Shelamim), i.e.:
1. After its first year and after Pesach passed (the same applies before Pesach);
2. Within its first year and after Pesach passed;
3. Within its first year before Pesach came (e.g. Chalifas Pesach).
(n) The Torah must teach all three cases.
1. Had it taught only about the first, one might have thought that only then it is Shelamim, because it is totally Pasul for Pesach; but not within its first year after Pesach, for it is still Kosher for Pesach Sheni;
2. Had it taught only about the first two cases, one might have thought that only then it is Shelamim, because it is Pasul for Pesach Rishon; but not within its first year before Pesach, for then it is still Kosher for Pesach Rishon.
PEREK KOL KORBANOS HA'TZIBUR
2) THE GRAIN USED FOR "MENACHOS"
(a) (Mishnah): All (Menachos of) Korbanos Tzibur may come from Eretz Yisrael or Chutz la'Aretz and from Chodosh or Yashan, except for the Omer and Shtei ha'Lechem, which must come from Chodosh of Eretz Yisrael.
(b) All Menachos must come from choice grain;
1. The best places for Soles are Machnis and Zatcha. Next best is Aforayim in the valley.
2. All places in Eretz Yisrael are Kesherim, they would bring from here, for these are the best.
(c) (Gemara): Our Mishnah is unlike the following Tana:
1. (Beraisa): If the Omer or Shtei ha'Lechem was brought from Yashan, it is Kosher, but a Mitzvah was lost;
2. Regarding the Omer it says "Takriv Es Minchas Bikurecha" - even from the attic (Yashan, not harvested for the sake of the Omer);
3. Regarding Shtei ha'Lechem it says "mi'Moshvoseichem Tavi'u", but not from Chutz la'Aretz. We bring "mi'Moshvoseichem" - even from the attic.
4. Question: We cannot expound two laws from one word!
5. Answer: The latter law is learned from "Tavi'u". (This is extra, for before this it says "v'Hikravtem".)
6. Question: We used "Tavi'u" to teach that whatever you bring similar to this (i.e. Chametz, in Todah) should be the same size, one Isaron per loaf!
7. Answer: It could have said 'Tavi'. Rather, it says "Tavi'u", to teach also about Lachmei Todah.
8. Question: (Regarding both of them) it says "Reishis"! (We should require Chadash!)
9. Answer: That is l'Chatchilah. B'Di'eved, Yashan is Kosher.
10. Question: (Regarding Shtei ha'Lechem) it says "Chadashah"!
11. Answer (Beraisa - R. Noson and R. Akiva): Shtei ha'Lechem from Yashan is Kosher;
i. To fulfill "Chadashah", it must precede all Menachos of Chodosh.