BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
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[91a - 48 lines; 91b - 46 lines]
MENACHOS 91 - This Daf has been dedicated by Rabbi Kornfeld and his staff in honor of the marriage of Dvorah Chasdeya Feldman to Oren Tzvi Solomon, tonight in Yerushalayim the Holy City. May they merit to build a Bayis Ne'eman, which will be a pride and joy to their wonderful families and all of Klal Yisrael!
1a) [line 5] B'MEFARESH - in a case where one specifies [either bulls, sheep or goats]
b) [line 6] B'SETAMA - in a case where one does not specify [the type of animal]
2) [line 10] EIL NAZIR - the ram of a Nazir [that is offered as a Korban Shelamim]
See Background to Menachos 88:14.
3a) [line 11] HASAM SHNEI MININ - there (Nazir) [there are] two types [of Lechamim, Chalos and Rekikin]
b) [line 11] HACHA ARBA'AS MININ - here (Lachmei Todah) [there are] four types [of Lechamim, Chalos, Rekikin, Revuchah and Lechem Chametz]
4) [line 16] KLAL U'FRAT U'CHLAL IY ATAH DAN ELA K'EIN HA'PRAT
(a) In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael, who is Doresh Kelalei and Peratei (see Background to Menachos 28:31), lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is Kelal u'Ferat u'Chelal Iy Atah Dan Ela k'Ein ha'Perat.
(b) When a Kelal (general term) is followed by a Perat (specification), which is followed in turn by another Kelal, then everything belonging to the general category that is similar to the Perat is included. Anything that is not in the general category of the limiting Perat is not included.
5) [line 19] KLAL U'FRAT MAH MARBIS BEI? - What [Korbanos that require Nesachim] do we include using the Kelal u'Ferat [u'Chelal]?
6a) [line 20] VELADOS KODASHIM
(a) The Halachos that apply to the offspring of Korbanos depend upon the Korbanos that have given birth. The offspring of Korbenos Shelamim and Todos or their Temuros (see next entry) are offered as their respective Korbanos, except that the offspring and Temurah of a Todah do not require Lachmei Todah (Mishnah Menachos 79b). The offspring and Temurah of a Korban Chatas are among the five Chata'os that are put to death (see below, entry #8:b). The offspring and Temurah of an animal that is Ma'aser Behemah are put out to pasture until they develop a blemish and are eaten by their owner.
(b) The offspring of the Temurah of a Korban Asham is put out to pasture until it develops a blemish, at which point it is sold, whereupon the money is used to purchase Korbenos Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach (see Background to Menachos 90:13). The offspring of the Temurah of a Korban Olah is offered as an Olah. The offspring of the Temurah of a Bechor is put out to pasture until it develops a blemish and is eaten by a Kohen. (RAMBAM Hilchos Temurah 4:1-9)
b) [line 20] TEMURASAN (TEMURAH)
(a) The Torah prohibits making a Temurah, which is a Chulin animal exchanged for an animal designated as a Korban in an attempt to transfer the Kedushas ha'Guf of the Korban onto a replacement Korban. The verse states, "Do not transfer or exchange it (an animal that has been designated as a Korban) [for another animal], neither a good animal for a bad one nor a bad one for a good one. If you do exchange an animal [of Kodesh] for another animal [that is not], both the original animal and the one given in exchange for it, will be Kodesh." (Vayikra 27:10). The CHINUCH explains that the reason for the prohibition of Temurah is to teach us the proper reverence that we must have for objects of Kedushah (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #351, #352). (For a definition of Kedushas ha'Guf as opposed to Kedushas Damim, see Background to Avodah Zarah 13:16:c-e.)
(b) For example, the Mishnah (Temurah 26b) teaches that a person can make a Temurah by taking two animals, one of which was designated as a Korban, and saying "Zo Tachas Zo" - "This [animal] is instead of this [animal]" or "Zo Temuras Zo" - "This is in place of this" or "Zo Chalifas Zo" - "This is in exchange for this." The second animal, or the Temurah, is usually a valid Korban. If it has no Mum (blemish that invalidates it), it must also be offered on the Mizbe'ach (unless the original Korban was a Chatas or an Asham).
(c) A person who intentionally makes a Temurah receives Malkus (lashes). Sometimes, even if a person makes a Temurah b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he receives Malkus (see Chart to Temurah 17a). (For a discussion of the difference between Temurah and Chilul (redemption), see Background to Bava Metzia 57:2.)
7) [line 20] OLAH HA'BA'AH MIN HA'MOSAROS - an Olah that is brought from leftover [Korbanos]. When a Korban cannot be offered but must be put out to pasture and then redeemed when it develops a blemish, such as a Korban Asham, the owner of which died, the money received for the sale (redemption) of the animal must be used to buy a Korban Olah, which is then offered as "Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach" (KAYITZ HA'MIZBE'ACH)
See Background to Menachos 90:13.
8) [line 21] ASHAM SHE'NITAK LI'RE'IYAH
(a) Rebbi Yehoshua rules that an Asham animal that is in one of the five categories for which an animal that is a Korban Chatas is put to death, is put out to pasture until it develops a Mum, after which it is redeemed. Its value is used to purchase an Olas Nedavah for the Tzibur ("Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach," see Background to Menachos 90:13). (Rebbi Eliezer argues, ruling that the Asham animals are put to death just like the Chatas animals.)
(b) The five Chata'os that are put to death by being locked up without food until they die are:
1. The offspring of a Chatas
2. The Temurah (see Background to Temurah 2:1) of a Chatas
3. A Chatas whose owner has died
4. A Chatas of a sheep or goat that became a year old (and is therefore invalid as a Korban Chatas), whose owner brought a different Chatas to atone for his sins
5. A Chatas that was lost and was later found with a Mum, whose owner brought a different Chatas to atone for his sins (Temurah 21b)
9) [line 43] U'SHELOSAH ESRONIM SOLES MINCHAH BELULAH VA'SHEMEN, V'LOG ECHAD SHAMEN." - "... and three Esronim of fine flour fit for a Minchah offering mixed with oil, and one Log of oil." (Vayikra 14:10) - This verse refers to the Menachos Nesachim of the three animal Korbanos of a Metzora who is able to afford three animals (see Background to Menachos 88:13).
10a) [line 43] B'MINCHAH HA'BA'AH IM HA'ZEVACH - a Korban Minchah that is offered along with and because of an animal sacrifice
b) [line 44] B'MINCHAH HA'BA'AH BIFNEI ATZMAH - a Korban Minchah that is offered independent of an animal sacrifice
11) [line 45] "V'HE'ELAH HA'KOHEN ES HA'OLAH V'ES HA'MINCHAH..." - "And the Kohen shall offer the Olah and the Minchah [upon the Mizbe'ach, and the Kohen shall make atonement for him and he shall be Tahor.]" (Vayikra 14:20)
12) [line 46] "V'YAYIN LA'NESECH REVI'IS HA'HIN TA'ASEH AL HA'OLAH O LA'ZAVACH LA'KEVES HA'ECHAD." - "And you shall offer one quarter of a Hin of wine as a libation for each lamb that is offered as a burnt offering or as a sacrifice." (Bamidbar 15:5) - Our Gemara uses the seemingly superfluous words "ha'Olah O la'Zavach" to teach that the three Korbanos of a Metzora all require wine.
13) [line 1] CHATAS V'ASHAM MINAYIN? - From where do we learn that if a Nazir burns his shaven hair under the pot in which his Korban Asham (in the case of a Nazir Tamei -- see Background to Zevachim 23:6) or his Korban Chatas (in the case of a Nazir Tamei or a Nazir Tahor -- see Background to Menachos 88:14) are cooked, has he fulfilled his obligation (according to the opinion of Rebbi Meir, Nazir 45b)?
14) [line 1] TALMUD LOMAR "ZEVACH" - it is taught from the seemingly superfluous word "Zevach" in one of the verses of the Korbanos of a Nazir (Bamidbar 6:18)
15) [line 2] TARVAIHU KI HADADEI NINHU - the two of them (the Asham Nazir and the Chatas Nazir) are similar (the Asham Nazir makes the Nazir fit to count his days of Nezirus again and the Chatas Nazir makes the Nazir fit to shave and drink wine)
16a) [line 3] ASHAM L'HACHSHIR - the Asham Metzora is offered to render the Metzora fit [to eat Kodshim and to enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash]
b) [line 3] CHATAS L'CHAPER - the Chatas Metzora is offered to atone [for the Metzora, for the seven sins for which a person is afflicted with Nega'im] (Erchin 16a) (but see YOSEF DA'AS)
17) [line 6] U'MINCHASAM V'NISKEIHEM." - "... and their Korbenos Menachos Nesachim and their wine libations." (Bamidbar 6:15)
18) [line 8] "V'ES HA'AYIL YA'ASEH ZEVACH SHELAMIM ..." - "and the ram he shall offer as a peace offering ..." (Bamidbar 6:17)
19) [line 9] AYIL BI'CHLAL HAYAH, V'LAMAH YATZA? L'HAKISH ELAV - the ram was already included in the general verse "v'Hikriv Es Korbano la'Sh-m... v'Ayil Echad Tamim l'Shelamim" (Bamidbar 6:14), and why was it singled out in this verse (verse 17)? To compare the other sacrifices to it... (and exclude the Chatas and Asham Nazir from the requirement of Nesachim)
20) [line 12] OLAS YOLEDES
(a) In Vayikra 12:1-8 the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages: 1. During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is permitted to eat Terumah, if she is the wife of a Kohen. 2. During the second stage, any blood that she sees does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. The blood that she sees during this period is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.
(b) At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Menachos 27:34). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Benei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even during the period of Dam Tohar -- see Insights to Nidah 25a.)
21) [line 15] ACHAD ASAR SHEL MA'ASER - in a case where a person called the ninth animal "tenth," the tenth, "ninth" and the eleventh, "tenth," the ninth animal is put out to pasture and may be eaten after it develops a Mum (blemish). The tenth animal is brought as the Korban Ma'aser Behemah. The eleventh animal is brought as a Korban Shelamim, with Nesachim (Mishnah Bechoros 60a) (MA'ASER BEHEMAH)
See Background to Menachos 90:17
22a) [line 16] SHE'LO MATZINU LAH B'CHOL HA'TORAH - that we have not found anywhere else in all of the [Mitzvos of the] Torah (except for this instance)
b) [line 16] SHE'YEHEI TAFEL CHAMUR MIN HA'IKAR - that the subordinate (the eleventh animal) is more stringent (it requires Nesachim) than the original (the Ma'aser Behemah animal, which does not require Nesachim)
23) [line 19] EILO SHEL AHARON - the ram of Aharon ha'Kohen, which was offered as a Korban Olah, as the Musaf sacrifice of the Kohen Gadol on Yom ha'Kipurim
24) [line 25] PALGAS - a sheep in its thirteenth month. During its first year it is called a Keves. After a month of its second year has passed, it is called an Ayil.
25) [line 26] BERYAH HU - it is an independent entity (not a sheep and not a ram, and therefore a specific verse is needed to obligate Palgas in the Nesachim of an Ayil)
26) [line 29] MAISI U'MASNI - he brings [the Nesachim of a ram] and stipulates [that since the Halachah of a Palgas is in doubt, should it require the Nesachim of a ram, these are they; should it only require the Nesachim of a sheep, its Nesachim is the amount that is required for a sheep; the rest is voluntary Nesachim]
27) [line 30] ITZERICH KERA LI'REBUYEI SEFEIKA? - Is it necessary for a verse to specifically obligate a doubtful case? (i.e. it is obvious that one needs to be stringent in the case of a doubt)
28) [line 31] "KACHAH YE'ASEH LA'SHOR HA'ECHAD O LA'AYIL HA'ECHAD O LA'SEH VA'KEVASIM O VA'IZIM." - "Thus shall he do for each bull or for each ram or for each sheep or each goat." (Bamidbar 15:11) - This verse contains many concepts that have been mentioned in previous verses; the Gemara lists various Halachos that are extracted from this verse.
29a) [line 34] NISCHEI AYIL - the Minchas Nesachim of a ram (two Esronim of fine flour mixed in four Lugin of olive oil, and four Lugin of wine)
b) [line 34] NISCHEI KEVES - the Minchas Nesachim of a sheep (one Isaron of fine flour mixed in three Lugin of olive oil, and three Lugin of wine)
30a) [line 34] PAR - a bull (of which the Minchas Nesachim are three Esronim of fine flour mixed in six Lugin of olive oil, and six Lugin of wine)
b) [line 35] EGEL - a calf
31a) [line 41] KIVSAH - a female lamb (within its first year)
b) [line 42] RECHELAH - a female ram (after its first year)
32a) [line 45] GEDI - a yearling goat (the Nesachim of which are one Isaron of fine flour mixed in three Lugin of olive oil, and three Lugin of wine)
b) [line 45] SA'IR - a goat older than one year old
33) [last line] BADIK LAN RAVA - Rava tested us
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