BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Yerushalayim
[19a - 54 lines; 19b - 36 lines]
1) [line 1] MIKRA NIDRASH LEFANAV UL'ACHARAV - a verse is interpreted to apply to both that which precedes it and that which follows it (MIKRA NIDRASH LEFANAV / MIKRA NIDRASH L'ACHARAV / MIKRA NIDRASH LEFANAV UL'ACHARAV)
In a number of places in Shas, different views are cited regarding whether a phrase in a verse is expounded to explain words that precede it ("Mikra Nidrash Lefanav"), or it is expounded to explain words that follow it ("Mikra Nidrash l'Acharav"), or whether it is expounded to explain words that both precede and follow it ("Mikra Nidrash Lefanav ul'Acharav").
2) [line 11] VAV MOSIF AL INYAN RISHON - (lit. the letter "Vav" adds to the first topic) Rebbi Chama b'Rebbi Chanina learns that the letters "Vav" in the words "u'Se'ir" in the verses that describe the Korbenos Musaf of all of the holidays (Bamidbar 28:16, 22, 30, 29:5, 11, 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, 34, 38) connect all of the goats that are sacrificed as Korbenos Chatas. Rebbi Chama's teaching provides a source for Rebbi Meir's Halachah that all three types of Se'irim (Rosh Chodesh, Regalim, and Chitzon of Yom ha'Kipurim) accomplish all of the three atonements (Tahor she'Achal Es ha'Tamei, Ein Bah Yedi'ah Lo bi'Techilah v'Lo ba'Sof, and Ein Bah Yedi'ah bi'Techilah Aval Yesh Bah Yedi'ah ba'Sof).
3) [line 15] MI'KABALAH V'EILACH MITZVAS KEHUNAH - from the act of Kabalah (receiving the blood) and onwards it is the exclusive Mitzvah of the Kohanim [to perform the Avodah]
4) [line 24] GALI RACHMANA B'YOM HA'KIPURIM - the Torah reveals with regard to [the offerings of] Yom Kippur [that, in general, the Shechitah of a Korban need not be performed by its owner]
5) [line 27] TARTEI BA'A'YA - both are required (and where the Torah mentions only one of those words, either "Torah" or "Chukah," the law is not Me'akev)
6) [line 30] TENUFAH B'NAZIR ME'AKVA - the waving (of the right foreleg of his Korban Shelamim with the loaves) is essential to the offering of a Nazir. When a Nazir completes his period of Nezirus, he must offer three sacrifices: an Olah, a Chatas, and a Shelamim. Together with the Shelamim he brings a certain amount of Soles (fine flour) which is made into 20 loaves of Matzah, 10 Chalos (unleavened loaves of Matzah) and 10 Rekikin (flat Matzos). After the Shelamim has been offered, the Nazir together with a Kohen waves the right foreleg of the Shelamim together with one bread of each type. See Background to Menachos 3:24d.
7) [line 33] ARBA'AH SHEB'TODAH - four [types of loaves] of the Korban Todah (KORBAN TODAH: 4 MINEI LECHEM)
(a) The Todah (thanksgiving offering) is a form of Shelamim that is eaten for only one day and one night (Vayikra 7:15). Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a meal offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar ibid.
(b) An animal that sacrificed as a Todah is brought together with forty loaves of bread, ten each of the following:
1. Chalos Matzos - Matzos mixed with oil;
2. Rekikin - flat Matzos saturated with oil;
3. Soles Murbeches - Matzos made of boiled flour mixed with oil;
4. Loaves of leavened bread. (Vayikra 7:12-13)
(c) One loaf of each type of bread is given to the Kohen who performs the Zerikas ha'Dam of the Todah (Vayikra 7:14). (These four loaves are known as Terumas Lachmei Todah.) The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim are given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban are offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten on the day that it is slaughtered and the following night.
8) [line 36] SHALMEI NAZIR
See Background to Menachos 3:24d.
9) [line 37] ARBA'AH MININ SHEB'METZORA - the four species used for the purification of the Metzora (cedar, hyssop, scarlet thread, and birds) are Me'akev each other. See Background to Menachos 3:24e.
10) [line 41] SHENEI SE'IREI YOM HA'KIPURIM - the two goats of Yom ha'Kipurim
(a) On Yom ha'Kipurim, a Goral (lot) is performed by the Kohen Gadol to choose between two identical goats (Vayikra 16:7-10). One (the Sa'ir la'Sh-m) is offered as a Korban Chatas ha'Nisraf and its blood is sprinkled in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Vayikra 16:15); the other (the Sa'ir la'Azazel) is dispatched ("Mishtale'ach") to Azazel (a hard rocky cliff), from which it is pushed off to its death (Vayikra 16:21-22).
(b) The blood of the Sa'ir la'Sh-m is also sprinkled on the Paroches and on the Mizbach ha'Ketores (Vayikra 16:16, 18-19). Its flesh is entirely burned in the place outside of the city where the ashes from the Mizbe'ach are deposited (Vayikra 16:27).
(c) The Mishnah (Shevuos 2a) states that the Sa'ir la'Sh-m works along with the actual day of Yom ha'Kipurim to Toleh (hold back) the impending punishment of a person who sinned with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (eating Kodshim or entering the Azarah while in a state of Tum'ah - see Background to Shevuos 2:2), when he initially knew about his Tum'ah (or the Kodshim or Mikdash) and subsequently forgot about it. (When he does find out about it, he brings a Korban Oleh v'Yored, as mentioned in Background to Shevuos ibid.) In addition, it works along with the actual day of Yom ha'Kipurim to provide atonement for people who sin b'Mezid (intentionally) with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (Shevuos 2b).
11) [line 7] "" "MALEI KUMTZO, B'KUMTZO" - [according to one opinion,] these two phraes in the verse teach that Kemitzah must be done with the hand, and that a Kohen may not use a vessel that holds as much as his Kometz (handful)
12) [line 8] SHE'LO YA'ASEH MIDAH LA'KOMETZ - [the verse teaches] that one may not make a measure for the Kometz and use it for the act of Kemitzah
13) [line 16] MIZRAKOS - basins
14) [line 25] MAGISHAH B'KEREN DEROMIS MA'ARAVIS KENEGED CHUDAH SHEL KEREN - he (the Kohen) brings the Minchah near the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach, opposite the tip of the corner
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