BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
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[4a - 44 lines; 4b - 34 lines]
1) [line 9] MI'MINCHAS CHOTEI (MINCHAS CHOTEI: KORBAN OLEH V'YORED B'DALEI DALUS)
See Background to Menachos 2:5.
2) [line 10] U'MINCHAS KENA'OS (MINCHAS KENA'OS)
See Background to Menachos 2:6.
3) [line 14] MINCHAS KENA'OS MOSRAH NEDAVAH - the leftover money from a Minchas Kena'os goes towards a free-will offering; i.e. if someone designated money for the Minchah of a Sotah (see previous entry) and the price of barley (which is used for such a Minchah) went down, the excess money should be set aside for a Nedavah.
4) [line 24] LIGMOR AVONO AVONO ME'AVON D'SHEMI'AS KOL - learn "Avono" (to derive the laws of an Asham) from "Avono" (written with regard to witnesses who know testimony to enable a litigant to win a monetary case, but deny that they do; see Background to Zevachim 94:36)
5) [line 27] EIN GEZEIRAH SHAVAH L'MECHETZAH (GEZEIRAH SHAVAH)
(a) In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is Gezeirah Shavah, which is a Halachic device by which two similar words in the Torah from different subjects teach that laws from one subject apply to the other.
(b) A sage may use the method of Gezeirah Shavah only if he received a tradition from his teachers that a Gezeirah Shavah exists between the two words. However, the comparison that he makes regarding which laws are applied from one subject to the other may be his own, in the event that he did not learn this directly from his teachers.
(c) A Gezeirah Shavah is not limited; one may not pick and choose which Halachos he would like to apply to the other connected subject. This facet of a Gezeirah Shavah is termed "Ein Gezeirah Shavah l'Mechetzah." This rule is waived in the case of an explicit teaching that precludes the application of a specific Halachah.
(d) There are three possible configurations for a Gezeirah Shavah:
1. MUFNEH MI'SHNEI TZEDADIM - If two similar words in the Torah are free of any Derashah, they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a Gezeirah Shavah between the two topics.
2. MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If only one of the words is free, there is a Machlokes whether they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a Gezeirah Shavah (Lemedin v'Ein Meshivin), or if they can only be used for a Gezeirah Shavah if we have no logical argument against learning the Gezeirah Shavah (Lemedin u'Meshivin).
3. EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If both words are used for another Derashah, there is a Machlokes whether they can only be used for a Gezeirah Shavah if we have no logical argument not to learn the Gezeirah Shavah, or if they cannot be used at all for a Gezeirah Shavah.
6) [line 36] HAKTARAS HA'EIMURIM - the burning of the Eimurim [on the fire of the Mizbe'ach]
7) [line 42] HU VA'HAVAYASO YEHEI - it remains in its original condition [as long as it has not been consigned to grazing, and if it is slaughtered with non-specific intent, it is an invalid Asham, not a valid Olah]
8) [line 42] MINCHAS HA'OMER
See Background to Menachos 2:1:II:e:1.
9) [line 44] ASHAM NAZIR
See Background to Menachos 3:24d.
10) [line 1] ASHAM METZORA
See Background to Menachos 3:24e.
11) [line 17] ASHAM GEZEILOS - a person who steals money from a fellow Jew, swears in Beis Din that he holds no such money and later admits his sin, must return what he stole, pay a fine of Chomesh, and bring a Korban Asham to receive atonement (Vayikra 5:20-26; see Background to Kidushin 52:36b).
(a) A person brings a Korban Oleh v'Yored to atone for sins in three specific cases: Shevu'as ha'Edus (see Background to Shevuos 30:1), Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to Shevuos 2:2) and Shevu'as Bituy (see Background to Shevuos 2:1).
(b) What constitutes a Korban Oleh v'Yored varies based on the means of the penitent. If he is wealthy, he brings a female sheep or goat as a Chatas (Korban Ashir). If he cannot afford this, he brings two Torim or two Benei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalus). If he cannot even afford the birds, he brings one tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a Minchas Chotei (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalei Dalus). (Vayikra 5:6-13)
12) [line 17] V'ASHAM ME'ILOS - a person who has benefit from Hekdesh b'Shogeg must bring a Korban Asham, besides paying the amount he benefited plus a fine of Chomesh (Vayikra 5:14-16)
13) [line 18] LO PESIKA LEI - it cannot be stated in an unqualified manner
14) [line 30] MA'OS SETUMIN - unspecified money; i.e. money that was set aside for the purchase of a set of Korbanos without designating which Korban would be purchased with which part of the money
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