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|SHEVUOS 39 (25 Av) - Dedicated by Mrs. G. Kornfeld for the tenth Yahrzeit of her mother, Mrs. Gisela Turkel (Golda bas Chaim Yitzchak Ozer), an exceptional woman with an iron will who loved and respected the study of Torah.|
1. For all other transgressions, only the perpetrator himself is punished, but for the transgression of Shevu'as Sheker the entire family, and even the entire world, is punished.
2. Even things that cannot be destroyed by fire and water are destroyed by the transgression of Shevu'as Sheker.
3. The Beis Din informs the person who will be taking the Shevu'ah: "You shall know that the Shevu'ah is not in accordance with your own Da'as, but rather in accordance with the Da'as of Hashem and the Da'as of Beis Din."
4. When Moshe told the Bnei Yisrael to swear he informed them, "You shall know that the Shevu'ah is not in accordance with your own Da'as but rather in accordance with the Da'as of Hashem and my Da'as."
5. The Shevu'ah that Moshe had the Bnei Yisrael swear was binding on future generations, including future converts.
6. The whole world shook when Hashem gave the Mitzvah of Lo Sisa at Har Sinai.
7. All of Klal Yisrael is responsible for the Aveiros of fellow Jews.
8. When a person commits an Aveirah, the Resha'im of the family are punished. They are not punished as severely as the perpetrator.
9. If a person admits to a portion of a claim and denies less than the amount of two Kesef, there is a disagreement about whether he is Chayav a Shevu'ah.
10. Shmuel maintains that if someone makes a claim against his friend for wheat and barley and his friend admits to one of them but not the other, he is Chayav a Shevu'ah.
A BIT MORE
1. The Resha'im of the family are punished with the same punishment as the perpetrator himself. The Resha'im of the rest of the world are punished with a lesser, but still severe, punishment. The Tzadikim of the family and of the world are punished with a light punishment.
2. For all other transgressions, if the perpetrator has merit he will not be punished immediately, but for the transgression of a false Shevuah the punishment is carried out without delay.
3. The reason for this is to prevent the person from fulfilling the Shevu'ah in a tricky manner, such as hiding the money he owes in a tube and giving it to the lender to watch for him. Therefore, we inform him that the Shevu'ah is being made in accordance with the Da'as of Hashem and the Beis Din. If the money is not returned in a conventional manner, it is a transgression of the Aveirah of Shevu'as Sheker.
4. The reason for this is that the Shevu'ah may not be repealed. A Shevu'ah made in accordance with the Da'as of the public may not be repealed.
5. Klal Yisrael committed themselves with a Shevu'ah to keep the entire Torah, even the Mitzvos that had not yet been given, such as Mikra Megilah.
6. The world trembled because of the stringency of a Shevu'as Sheker about which the Torah states, "He will not be absolved."
7. However, a Yisrael is punished only for the Aveiros of his fellow Jew if he was in a position to protest the Aveirah.
8. The Resha'im of the rest of the world are punished as well, but only with a light punishment. The Tzadikim of the family and of the world are not punished at all.
9. Rav maintains that he is exempt from a Shevu'ah because there is only a Chiyuv Shevu'ah if he denies at least two Kesef. Shmuel maintains if the claim was at least two Kesef, even if the denial was only a Perutah, he is Chayav a Shevu'as Modeh b'Miktzas.
10. Although he denied one of the claims completely, since he admitted to one of the claims it is regarded as Modeh b'Miktzas and he is Chayav a Shevu'ah.
Next Daf Index to Revach for Maseches Shevuos