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|SANHEDRIN 62 (1 Iyar) - Dedicated by Ari Friedman and family of Lawrence, N.Y., l'Iluy Nishmas Ari's father, Reb Yakov Yosef ben Rav Nosson Neta Z'L Friedman in honor of his third Yahrzeit. Jack Friedman exemplified true Ahavas Yisrael and Ahavas Chesed; may he be a Melitz Yosher for his children and grandchildren and for all of Klal Israel.|
1. There is a dispute regarding whether a person incurs more than one Chiyuv Chatas if he worships an Avodah Zarah in multiple ways at one time, without remembering in between that they are forbidden.
2. Sometimes a person who commits multiple Chilulei Shabbos is Chayav to bring only one Chatas, and sometimes a person incurs a separate Chiyuv Chatas for each Chilul Shabbos.
3. If a person intends to write the word "Shimon" on Shabbos and writes only the first two letters, he is Chayav a Chatas.
4. If a person thought that he was bowing to a Beis Keneses and it turned out to be an Avodah Zarah, he is Patur from bringing a Chatas.
5. There is a dispute regarding whether a person who worships an Avodah Zarah out of love or fear of a human being, but not because he considers it a god, is Chayav Misah.
6. If a person does two different Melachos on Shabbos without realizing in between that he sinned, he is Chayav to bring two Korbanos Chatas.
7. It is a Safek whether a person who forgets both the prohibition of Shabbos and the prohibition of the Melachos is Chayav to bring a separate Korban Chatas for each Melachah.
8. If a person mistakes Chelev for saliva and swallows it, he is Chayav a Chatas.
9. If a person accidentally uproots a plant on Shabbos because he thought it was already detached from the ground and attempted to pick it up, he is Patur from a Chatas.
A BIT MORE
1. Rebbi Zakai maintains that a person who Shechts a Korban, burns incense, pours wine and bows down to an Avodah Zarah at one time, without realizing between his actions that he has sinned, is Chayav to bring only one Chatas because all these Avodos are derived from a single verse in the Torah. Rebbi Yochanan disagrees.
2. If a person knows that the Melachos are forbidden but performs Melachos because he does not realize that the day is Shabbos, he is Chayav to bring only one Chatas for all of the Melachos that he does on that Shabbos. However, if a person is aware that it is Shabbos and performs Melachos because he does not know that certain Melachos are forbidden, he is Chayav to bring a separate Chatas for each Melachah that he does.
3. Even though his intention was to write the word "Shimon," since the first two letters of "Shimon" form the word "Shem," he is Chayav a Chatas if he writes it b'Shogeg. However, if a person intends to write "Naftali" and writes only the first two letters, he is not Chayav a Chatas, since the first two letters of "Naftali" do not compose a name.
4. If a person bows to a statue, he is Chayav Misah if he accepted it as a god, but he is Patur if he bowed to it only for the honor of the king.
5. Abaye maintains that even a person who worships an Avodah Zarah out of love or fear of a human being is Chayav Misah. Rava maintains that he is Patur since he does not consider the Avodah Zarah a god.
6. If a person performs one Melachah twice and does not realize in between that he sinned, he is Chayav to bring only one Chatas. The same is true regarding other prohibitions. For example, a person who eats Chelev and blood in one He'elem (without realizing in between that he sinned) is Chayav to bring two Korbanos Chatas because he transgressed two distinct prohibitions. However, a person who eats Chelev twice in a single He'elem is Chayav to bring only one Korban.
7. It is a Safek if such a lapse is considered a He'elem Shabbos and he is Chayav to bring only one Korban, or if it is regarded as a He'elem Melachos and he is Chayav to bring a separate Korban for each Melachah.
8. Although he is considered Mis'asek since he did not intend to eat Chelev, he is Chayav to bring a Chatas because he derived benefit from the Chelev.
9. This is considered a case of Mis'asek since the person did not intend to uproot the plant at all. A person is Chayav for performing Melachah on Shabbos only if he performs a Meleches Machsheves (an intended Melachah).
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