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SANHEDRIN 60
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SUMMARY

1. Rebbi Elazar maintains that Kilayim are forbidden to a Ben Noach.
 
2. A Megadef is Chayav Misah only if he uses the four-letter name of Hashem.
 
3. A person who hears the words of a Megadef must stand up and rip his clothing.
 
4. There is a dispute regarding whether a person is Chayav to rip his clothing if he hears a non-Jew being Megadef.
 
5. There is a dispute regarding whether a person is Chayav to rip his clothes if he hears a Megadef using a Kinuy (a reference to Hashem that is not an explicit name of Hashem).
 
6. Min ha'Torah, the testimony of a second or third witness is accepted even if he does not specify what he saw but merely states that he saw the same thing that the first witness already testified about.
 
7. A person who worships an Avodah Zarah in the way it is customarily worshipped is Chayav Misah.
 
8. A person who worships an Avodah Zarah with an Avodah which is done in the Beis ha'Mikdash is Chayav Misah.
 
9. A person who bows to an Avodah Zarah or accepts the Avodah Zarah as his god is Chayav Misah.
 
10. A person who hugs or kisses an Avodah Zarah transgresses a Lo Sa'aseh even if it is not the customary form of worship for that Avodah Zarah.
 
11. A person who makes a Neder or a Shevu'ah in the name of an Avodah Zarah transgresses a Lo Sa'aseh.

A BIT MORE

1. A Ben Noach is prohibited to crossbreed different species of animals and to graft one type of tree onto another. However, other types of Kilayim are permitted to Bnei Noach.
 
2. A Megadef is Chayav even if he uses the four-letter name of Hashem rather than the forty-two-letter name of Hashem. He is not Chayav, however, if he uses the two-letter name of Hashem.
 
3. The tear in his clothing may never be mended. However, the witnesses who testify against a Megadef are not obligated to rip their clothing since they already did so when they originally heard the Megadef.
 
4. Although a verse clearly states that Chizkiyahu ripped his clothing when he heard Ravshakei utter blasphemy, Ravshakei was a Yisrael Mumar; thus, the verse does not indicate conclusively that there is a Chiyuv to rip one's clothing even if a non-Jew is Megadef.
 
5. Rebbi Chiya rules that a person who hears blasphemy from a non-Jew or blasphemy with a Kinuy is, in fact, Chayav to rip his clothing. Rebbi Chiya also maintains that there is no Chiyuv nowadays to rip one's clothing because blasphemy is so common that people's clothing would be in shreds if they were obligated to rip their clothes upon hearing blasphemy. That concern is only true because of Rebbi Chiya's own positions, since the blasphemy that is common nowadays is committed by non-Jews, and they are not familiar with the explicit name of Hashem.
 
6. The Rabanan decreed that all witnesses must state their testimony explicitly, even if other witnesses have already described the incident. In the case of a Megadef, however, the Rabanan did not make this decree; therefore, only the first witness is required to relate the words of the Megadef.
 
7. There is a Chiyuv Misah for serving an idol in any way in which it is customarily worshipped. Thus, if a person hugs or kisses an idol which is customarily hugged or kissed, he is Chayav Misah. A person who is Po'er himself to Ba'al Pe'or or throws stones at Markulis is also Chayav Misah, since those idols are customarily worshipped in those fashions.
 
8. If a person sacrifices an animal, burns incense, pours wine, or sprinkles blood to an Avodah Zarah, he is Chayav Misah even if the Avodah Zarah is not customarily worshipped in that manner.
 
9. A person who bows to an Avodah Zarah is Chayav Misah even if the Avodah Zarah is not customarily worshipped in this manner. If a person declares that an Avodah Zarah is his god, he is Chayav Misah for merely uttering those words, even if he does not perform any action.
 
10. A person transgresses a Lo Sa'aseh if he hugs or kisses an Avodah Zarah, sweeps or sprinkles water in front of it, smears it with oil, dresses it or puts shoes on it. He is not Chayav Misah, however, if the Avodah Zarah is not customarily worshipped in that way.
 
11. If a person makes a Neder in the name of an Avodah Zarah such as "All of the fruit in the world should be forbidden to me if I wash myself," or if he makes a Shevu'ah in the name of an Avodah Zarah, he transgresses a Lav.

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