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|SANHEDRIN 21 - Dedicated by Harav Shlomo Weinberger of Brooklyn, NY, in memory of his father, Reb Chaim Tzvi ben Reb Shlomo Weinberger, whose Yahrzeit is 18 Adar. Reb Chaim Tzvi, a Holocaust survivor who raised his family in a new country, bequeathed his children steadfast commitment to Torah and its study.|
1. A king is not permitted to marry a large number of wives.
2. It is forbidden to take the garment of a widow as a Mashkon.
3. David ha'Melech had 400 children who were Bnei Yefas To'ar.
4. Tamar the daughter of David ha'Melech was a Bas Yefas To'ar.
5. Yichud with an Ervah is forbidden Min ha'Torah.
6. Adoniyahu tried to wear the crown of David but it did not fit on his head.
7. A king is not permitted to possess even one extra horse that is not needed for his chariots.
8. A king may not possess extra gold and silver that he does not need.
9. Every Jew is obligated to write one Sefer Torah, while a king must write two Sifrei Torah.
10. The Torah was initially given in Kesav Ivri and Lashon ha'Kadosh.
A BIT MORE
1. The Tana Kama of the Mishnah maintains that the maximum number of wives that a king may marry is eighteen. Rebbi Yehudah maintains that a king may marry more than eighteen wives if they are righteous women who will not cause his heart to stray from Hashem. Rebbi Shimon maintains that he is prohibited to marry even one wife who will cause his heart to stray, and the prohibition of marrying more than eighteen wives applies even to wives who are righteous. Another Tana is quoted by a Beraisa as maintaining that a king may marry up to twenty-four wives, and yet another Tana, in a different Beraisa, maintains that a king may marry up to forty-eight wives.
2. Rebbi Yehudah maintains that it is forbidden to take a Mashkon even from a wealthy widow, while Rebbi Shimon maintains that the prohibition of taking a Mashkon from a widow applies only to a poor widow. According to Rebbi Shimon, the reason for the prohibition is that the widow's Mashkon will have to be returned to her every day, and if the lender visits her house on a daily basis, it will cause people to talk. Since the Mashkon of a wealthy widow will not have to returned to her on a daily basis, Rebbi Shimon maintains that the prohibition does not apply to her.
3. The four hundred Bnei Yefas To'ar of David ha'Melech grew their hair long, sat in golden carriages, and rode at the head of the army. They were the strongmen of David's household.
4. Tamar told her brother Amnon to ask David for permission to marry her. Rav infers that she must have been a Bas Yefas To'ar, because if her mother had been fully Jewish when Tamar was conceived, she would have been forbidden to marry her father's son and she would not have made such a suggestion to Amnon. The child of a non-Jewish mother and a Jewish father, however, is not considered "related" to the father's other children. Thus, since Tamar's mother was a Yefas To'ar (who is not Jewish) at the time of her conception, it was permitted for her to marry Amnon.
5. Yichud with an Ervah is forbidden Min ha'Torah; the only exception to this rule is that a son is permitted to be in Yichud with his mother. The Rabanan prohibited Yichud even with an unmarried woman who is not an Ervah.
6. David ha'Melech's crown had a golden bar that ran from one side to the other. Because of this bar, the crown would fit only a person who had a groove in his head. In this way, the crown "testified" to who was fit to be the king, because the crown could not be worn by anyone who was not meant to inherit the throne.
7. A king transgresses a Mitzvas Lo Sa'aseh for every extra horse he owns that he does not require for his chariots or cavalry. However, there is no need for him to limit the number of chariots or horsemen that he has.
8. A king is allowed to possess only enough silver and gold to pay his soldiers. He is, however, permitted to make a liberal estimate of the amount he will need, so that he will have enough gold and silver to hire extra soldiers if he needs to do so.
9. Every individual has an obligation to write a Sefer Torah. Even a person who inherited a Sefer Torah from his father is obligated to write another one. A king has an additional obligation to write a second Sefer Torah, which he must keep with him at all times except when he enters a restroom or a bathhouse. Even a king who receives a second Sefer Torah from another person is still obligated to write a second Sefer Torah for himself.
10. When the Torah was initially given to Klal Yisrael, it was written in Kesav Ivri and Lashon ha'Kadosh. At the time of Ezra ha'Sofer, it was given to Klal Yisrael in Kesav Ashuris and Lashon Arami. Klal Yisrael chose to retain Ksav Ashuris and Lashon ha'Kadosh.
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