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|BERACHOS 2-3 - The first two Dafim in Shas, the start of the 12th Dafyomi cycle, have been dedicated anonymously by a reader in Switzerland.|
1. The Mishnah discusses the latest time at which one may fulfill the Mitzvah of the nighttime Keri'as Shema.
2. Raban Gamliel's position differs from that of the Chachamim.
3. The Chachamim similarly said that one has only until Chatzos to perform two other laws in order to ensure that they are done.
4. The Gemara discusses why the Mishnah says that one may begin to recite Shema "from the time that the Kohanim start to eat Terumah."
5. The Gemara quotes a verse that hints that the day ends at "Tzeis ha'Kochavim" ("when the stars come out").
A BIT MORE
1. Rebbi Eliezer: One may read the Shema until one third of the night has passed. Chachamim: One may read the Shema until half of the night has passed (Chatzos). Raban Gamliel: One may read the Shema until Alos ha'Shachar (the Halachic beginning of the day).
2. While the Chachamim agree that according to Torah law one may say Shema until Alos ha'Shachar, they decreed that one must recite it only until Chatzos. This decree was made to ensure that one does not put it off until later, and then fall asleep without reciting the Shema. However, Raban Gamliel explained, if one did not say the Shema before Chatzos, he still should say it before Alos ha'Shachar.
3. The Chachamim decreed that the burning of the fats and limbs of the Korbanos in the Beis ha'Mikdash, and eating Korbanos that are meant be eaten in one day, should be done before Chatzos. This is despite the fact that they agree that according to the letter of the law these acts may be done until Alos ha'Shachar.
4. While the Mishnah should have said simply "nightfall" ("Tzeis ha'Kochavim"), it teaches an additional law -- that a Kohen is allowed to eat Terumah immediately after nightfall, after his immersion, without having to first offer any Korbanos that he may have been obligated to offer.
5. The verse in Nechemyah states, "And we were doing work.. from Alos ha'Shachar until Tzeis ha'Kochavim." Another verse there states, "And for us the night was for guarding and the day was for work." This implies that the day is considered over at Tzeis ha'Kochavim.
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