ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) According to Rav, one may read the Megilah on one's own - on the fourteenth; but one requires a Minyan - when it is read in advance.
(b) Rav Asi says that the Megilah should always be read with a Minyan, if possible.
(c) Once, when Rav had no Minyan on the fourteenth - he went to great lengths to read it with a Minyan, because he took the opinion of Rav Asi into consideration.
(a) Rav is quoted as saying that, when Purim falls on Shabbos, its time is on Friday. But that is strange - because if Purim falls on Shabbos, then its time is Shabbos and not Friday!
(b) We therefore try to amend the statement - by saying 'she'Lo bi'Zmanam ki'Zmanam', meaning that no Minyan is required when the Megilah is read outside its time, just like it is not required when it is read in its time on the fourteenth (contradicting what he just said).
(c) Rebbi Aba Amar Shmuel finally explains Rav's latter statement to mean that when Purim falls on Shabbos, the time to read it is on Friday (to preclude the opinion of Rebbi, in whose opinion it is read on Thursday).
(a) When Purim falls on Shabbos, we bring it forward (rather than postpone it) - because of the Pasuk in Esther "v'Lo Ya'avor", as we have already learned.
(b) Rebbi Aba Amar Shmuel learns from the Pasuk in Bo "l'Chodshei ha'Shanah" - that we reckon months of a year, and not days.
(c) For example - if someone makes a Neder on the first of Nisan, not to drink wine for a year, he is forbidden to drink wine for twelve months, until the following first of Nisan, to the exclusion of the remaining eleven days, which make up the 365 days of the sun-year).
(d) And the Rabanan of Caesaria quoting Rebbi Aba, learn from the Pasuk in Beha'aloscha "Ad Chodesh Yamim" - that we reckon days of the month, and not hours. If for example, a man gives his wife a Get on condition that she fails to arrive by the end of the month, then, assuming that that month is a short one, the end of the month is determined by the arrival of Rosh Chodesh (to the exclusion of the extra twelve hours and 793 Chalakim, when the new moon is due to born).
(a) When Tisha b'Av, the Korban Chagigah or the Mitzvah of Hakhel fall due on Shabbos, they are postponed. We postpone (rather than advance) ...
1. ... Tisha b'Av - because one does not advance a punishment.
2. ... the Chagigah and Hakhel - because they are premature (and the same applies to the Zman Atzei Kohanim - see Tosfos Yom Tov).
(b) We learned in a Beraisa that one postpones, not only the Chagigah, but also 'the time of Chagigah'. Rav Oshaya explains that this refers to the Olas Re'iyah (which is brought at the same time as the Chagigah), in which case, the Tana means to say - that one postpones the Olas Re'iyah from Yom Tov to Chol ha'Mo'ed, as well as the Chagigah from Shabbos to Sunday. This is like Beis Shamai, because, according to Beis Hillel, the Olas Re'iyah can be brought on Yom Tov.
(c) Rava learns that the Tana is coming to restrict the time of the Chagigah; Rav Ashi, that he is coming to extend it. According to ...
1. ... Rava - the Tana is saying that the concession of bringing the Chagigah after the first day of Yom Tov, only applies up to the end of Yom Tov (as long as it is a Chag), but not beyond.
2. ... Rav Ashi - he is saying that the seven days extension that one has in which to bring the Chagigah applies even on Shavu'os (even though it means bringing it on a day which is not a Chag).
(a) Beis Hillel agree with Beis Shamai that if Shavu'os falls on Shabbos, then Yom Tavo'ach takes place on Sunday. Yom Tavo'ach - refers to the days on which one brings the Chagigah that one failed to bring on Yom Tov.
(b) And they argue with Beis Shamai - by Shavu'os that falls on Friday ...
(c) ... Beis Shamai holds that, since one cannot bring the Chagigah on Yom Tov, the Yom Tavo'ach falls after Shabbos; whereas in the opinion of Beis Hillel, no Yom Tavo'ach is necessary there, since, in their opinion, the Chagigah is brought on Yom Tov.
(a) Rebbi Chanina testified that Rebbi 'did' three controversial things with which the Rabanan disagreed: 1. That he did something on Purim; 2. That he bathed on Shiv'ah-Asar b'Tamuz in the market-place of Tzipori at the time when the wagons drove past; 3 that he wanted to rescind Tisha b'Av. 'Something on Purim' - refers to the sapling that he planted.
(b) When Rebbi Aba bar Zavda amended the third testimony, Rebbi Chanina quoted the Pasuk in Koheles "Tovim ha'Shenayim min ha'Echad"). According to Rebbi Aba bar Zavda's amendment - Rebbi wanted to cancel Purim when it had been postponed from Shabbos till Sunday.
(c) The quotation - was made by Rebbi Elazar, who was grateful for the 'second opinion' of Rebbi Aba bar Zavda, without whom he would not have arrived at the truth.
(a) The Tana of Rav Yosef's Beraisa learns from the Pasuk in Esther ...
1. ... "Simchah" - that it is forbidden to make a Hesped on Purim.
2. ... "u'Mishteh - that it is forbidden to fast.
3. ... "v'Yom Tov" - that it is also forbidden to work.
(b) The suggestion (in an attempt to reconcile this with Rebbi who planted a sapling on Purim), that Rebbi (who was a townsman, whose Purim fell on the fourteenth), planted the sapling on the fifteenth is wrong - because Rebbi lived in Teverya, which had a wall around it from the days of Yehoshua.
(c) So we switch round the facts. In fact, Rebbi's Purim fell on the fifteenth, and he planted the sapling on the fourteenth. We resolve this with Chizkiyah (who also lived in Teverya and), who had a Safek whether Teverya was a Mukaf or not - by pointing out that even if Chizkiyah had a Safek ( as to whether Teverya was surrounded by a wall in the time of Yehoshua bin Nun, Rebbi did not).
(d) Chizkiyah used to read the Megilah on Purim - both on the fourteenth and on the fifteenth.
(a) Rava interprets the ruling in Megilas Ta'anis forbidding a Hesped both on the fourteenth and on the fifteenth to mean - that a townsman is forbidden on the fifteenth, and a city man on the fourteenth.
(b) We reconcile this with Rebbi - by restricting Rava's Din to Hesped and Ta'anis, but not to work.
(c) Rav cursed that man whom he found sowing flax-seeds on Purim - because he did that on his actual day of Purim.
(d) This entire Sugya to date is based on the Pasuk in Esther "Simchah u'Mishteh v'Yom Tov". Rabah Brei d'Rava extrapolates from there that - that in fact, the aspect of Yom Tov did not remain in force. The people did not accept it, so it was dropped (absolving Rebbi altogether).
(a) In spite of Rabah bar Rava's conclusion, Rav cursed that man whom he found sowing flax-seeds on Purim - because he was contravening local custom.
(b) Even if a similar Minhag was practiced in Teverya, Rebbi was justified in planting saplings on Purim - because they were saplings of Simchah (a large tree under which kings used to relax), which are permitted (provided the prohibition is based on no more than a Minhag).
(c) We learn this from the Mishnah in Ta'anis, which states that if the thirteen fasts past and still no rain came, one minimizes (among other things), planting a tree of Simchah and building a Binyan shel Simchah. A Binyan shel Simchah is - a house that a person would build for his first son when he got married, and where the Chupah would take place.
(a) Hatzidim, Tzer, Chamas, Rakas and Kineres - are all fortified cities which belonged to Naftali.
(b) Rakas is better known as Teverya. Its unusual feature - is the fact that its wall on one side comprises the sea.
(c) The Beraisa learns from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Asher Lo Chomah" - that with regard to the Din of Batei Arei Chomah, the town has to be surrounded by four walls that were built as walls, and not walls that are really part of houses.
2. ... "Saviv" - that it must be surrounded by four walls, and not by the sea (like Teverya).
(d) Nevertheless, Chizkiyah contends with the possibility that Teverya might be a Mukaf - because the Din of Mukaf on Purim might differ from that of Batei Arei Chomah, inasmuch as, whereas by Batei Arei Chomah, the Torah speaks of a wall, by Megilah, the Pasuk refers to Prazim and Mukafin, and Chizkiyah is not sure whether the criterion there is that the wall should render the town invisible from the outside (a service which the sea does not perform), or whether it must be protected (which it is). Note: Rebbi, who considers Teverya to be a Mukaf (as we learned earlier), clearly accepts the second interpretation.
(a) The town Hutzal belonged to - the tribe of Binyamin.
(b) According to the first Lashon, Rav Asi is not sure whether Hutzal was surrounded by a wall from the time of Yehoshua bin Nun or not; whereas according to the second - he holds that it definitely was.