1)WALLED CITIES FROM THE DAYS OF YEHOSHUA
(a)R. Yehoshua ben Levi: Lud, Ono, and Gei Hacharashim were surrounded by a wall from the days of Yehoshua.
(b)Question: (Two of) these were built later, by Alpa'el!
1."Alpa'el's sons were Eiver and Mesha'am and Shmar; he built Ono and Lud and its villages."
2.Counter-question: Another verse says that Asa built them!
(c)Answer to both questions (R. Elazar): These were built in the days of Yehoshua, destroyed in the war against Binyamin, and rebuilt by Alpa'el. They fell again, and Asa fixed them.
(d)Support: "Let us build these cities" shows that they already were cities.
2)THE OBLIGATION OF KERI'AS HA'MEGILAH
(a)R. Yehoshua ben Levi: Women must read the Megilah, because they were also in the miracle.
(b)R. Yehoshua ben Levi: When Purim falls on Shabbos, we publicly expound the Megilah on that day.
(c)Question: This is obvious, the same applies to any Yom Tov!
1.(Beraisa): Moshe enacted that we should expound Hilchos Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos, each on its day!
(d)Answer: He needs to teach about Purim;
1.(Rabah says that the decree not to read the Megilah on Shabbos was lest one carry a Megilah in a Reshus ha'Rabim.) One might have thought that we should not expound it for the same reason. He teaches that this is not so.
(e)R. Yehoshua ben Levi: One must read the Megilah at night and Lishnosah during the day. We learn this from "I call to you by day ... and night."
(f)Assumption: Lishnosah means to learn the Mishnayos of Megilah.
(g)Rejection (R. Yirmeyah): No, it means to repeat (the reading).
(h)Support (R. Chelbo): One must read the Megilah at night and in the day. We learn from "So my soul will sing to you and not be silent."
3)VILLAGES READ EARLY ON THE DAY OF GATHERING
(a)(Mishnah): Villages read on the day of assembly.
(b)(R. Chanina): Chachamim made a leniency for villagers, in order that they should (be free to) supply food and water to the cities (on Purim).
(c)Question: The enactment was not to help the cities!
1.(Mishnah): When the 14th falls on Monday, villages and cities read on that day.
2.If the enactment was to help cities, the villages should read the previous Thursday!
(d)Answer: Chachamim did not institute to read on the 10th.
(e)Question (Mishnah): When the 14th falls on Thursday, villages read on that day.
1.If the enactment is to help cities, the villages should read the previous Monday (the 11th)!
(f)Answer: We do not push aside a day of assembly to read on a different day of assembly.
(g)Question (Mishnah - R. Yehudah): The enactment only applies in places where villagers enter on days of assembly.
1.If the enactment is to help cities, it should apply everywhere!
(h)Retraction: The enactment is because villagers supply food and water to the cities.
4)THE DAYS ON WHICH THE MEGILAH IS READ
(a)Question: Why does the Mishnah begin by listing the days of the month in order, and then switch to list the days of the week?
(b)Answer: If it listed in order how the Megilah may be read on the 11th, 12th, etc. the order would be haphazard, and people would err.
(c)Our Mishnah is like Rebbi or R. Yosi, as we will explain.
(d)(Beraisa): When the 14th falls on Friday, villages and cities read on Thursday, and walled cities read on Friday;
(e)Rebbi says, cities are not uprooted (from their usual day); they and walled cities read on Friday.
(f)The first Tana learns from "Every year" that every year, cities read before walled cities.
(g)Question: Why not say that every year cities read on the 14th?
(h)Answer: This is impossible (since we are more concerned that they read before walled cities).
(i)Rebbi learns that every year, cities are not pushed off from the 14th.
(j)Question: Why not say that every year cities read before walled cities?
(k)Answer: This is impossible (since we are more concerned that they read on the 14th).
(l)(Beraisa): When the 14th falls on Friday, villages and walled cities read on Thursday; cities read on Friday;
(m)R. Yosi says, walled cities do not read before cities; rather, both read on Friday.
1.The first Tana learns that "Every year" cities read on the 14th, and on a different day than walled cities.
2.Question: Why not say that every year walled cities do not read before the open cities?
3.Answer: This is not possible (since he is more concerned that they read on different days).
4.R. Yosi learns that every year, walled cities do not read before the open cities.
5.Question: Why not say that every year they read on different days?
6.Answer: This is not possible (since he is more concerned that walled cities not read before the open cities).
(n)Question: Elsewhere, Rebbi taught that cities read early on the day of assembly!
1.(Beraisa): When the 14th falls on Shabbos, villages read on Thursday, cities on Friday, and walled cities on Sunday;
2.Rebbi says that since cities are pushed off, they are pushed back to Thursday.
(o)Answer: There, once they are being pushed off, they are pushed back to Thursday. When the 14th falls on Friday, there is no need to push them off.
(p)Question: Like whom is the following teaching?
1.(R. Chelbo): When the 14th falls on Shabbos, all are pushed off to Thursday.
2.Objection: This cannot be. Certainly, walled cities read on Sunday!
3.Correction: He means, all that are pushed off are pushed off to Thursday.
(q)Answer: It is like Rebbi.
(r)Question: All agree that the Megilah is not read on Shabbos. What is the reason?
(s)Answer #1 (Rabah): All must hear the Megilah, but some are not skilled to read it. Perhaps such a person will carry it four Amos in a Reshus ha'Rabim to learn from one who knows.
1.We do not blow the Shofar or take the Lulav on Shabbos because of a similar concern.
(t)Answer #2 (Rav Yosef): The poor look forward to the Megilah reading (Matanos l'Evyonim are given on the day we read; they may not be given on Shabbos).
(u)Support (Beraisa): Even though villages read early, we collect and give Matanos l'Evyonim on the day they read.
(v)Question: Rather, it should say because they read early, we collect and give on that day!
(w)Correction: Because villages read early, we collect and give Matanos l'Evyonim on that day, since the poor look forward to them.