[15a - 52 lines; 15b - 54 lines]
1)[line 8]"דבר ה' אשר היה אל צפניה בן כושי בן גדליה""DEVAR HASH-M ASHER HAYAH EL TZEFANYAH BEN KUSHI BEN GEDALYAH..." - "The word of HaSh-m came to Tzefanyah, the son of Kushi, the son of Gedalyah, [the son of Amaryah, the son of Chizkiyah, in the days of Yoshiyahu the son of Amon, the king of Yehudah]." (Tzefanyah 1:1) (TZEFANYAH HA'NAVI)
(a)The Ibn Ezra explains that the Chizkiyah mentioned here (Yoshiyah's great-great-grandfather) was Chizkiyahu, king of Yehudah, and that Amaryahu was Menasheh's brother.
(b)Three Nevi'im prophesied during the reign of Yoshiyah: Yirmeyahu, Chuldah, and Tzefanyah. Yirmeyahu prophesied in the marketplaces, and Tzefanyah in the Batei Midrash (before Yoshiyah and the people of Yehudah did Teshuvah), while Chuldah prophesied to the women.
(c)The Radak is skeptical about the Ibn Ezra's comment, and he explains that Tzefanyah prophesied during the era prior to Yoshiyah's Teshuvah. This explains the harsh tone of his prophecy which, for the most part is addressed to Yehudah.
2)[line 10]"ויהי בחדש השביעי בא ישמעאל בן נתניה בן אלישמע...""VA'YEHI BA'CHODESH HA'SHEVI'I, BA YISHMAEL BEN NESANYAH BEN ELISHAMA..." - "And it was in the seventh month, Yishmael the son of Nesanyah the son of Elishama, [a member of the royal family, together with some of the king's officers and ten men who were with him, came (from the land of Amon) to Gedalyahu ben Achikam to Mitzpah, and they ate there together in Mitzpah. And Yishmael son of Nesanyah arose, and along with the men who were with him, smote Gedalyahu son of Achikam, son of Shafan, and they killed him, because the king of Bavel had appointed him in charge of the land]." (Yirmeyahu 41:1-2) (THE ASSAINATION OF GEDALYAH BEN ACHIKAM)
(a)Gedalyah, whom Nevuchadnetzar had appointed as leader of the people who remained in Eretz Yisrael (who had not been sent into Galus), was an outstanding Tzadik. It is said that had he managed to build up the small settlement that remained in Eretz Yisrael, this would have resulted in the rebuilding of the second Beis ha'Mikdash which would never have been destroyed.
(b)Yochanan ben Kare'ach, a dignitary loyal to Gedalyah, aware of the impending plot to assassinate the latter, tried hard to convince him that Yishmael ben Nesanyah had been sent by the king of Amon to kill him. This was to no avail; Gedalyah refused to believe such a thing about a fellow Jew (even though, according to Halachah, he should have taken the warning to heart and been on his guard). The assassination took place on the second day of Rosh Hashanah. They killed Gedalyah, and all of the men of war who were with him and the contingent of Babylonians that was stationed there. The following day, eighty men came with torn clothes and shorn beards due to the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash. These men, too, Yishmael murdered in cold blood, throwing all the corpses into a communal pit. The ordinary folk, the women (including the princesses that Nevuchadnetzar had left in Eretz Yisrael under Gedalyah's jurisdiction), Yishmael took captive on his way back to Amon.
(c)When Yochanan ben Kare'ach and the officers who were with him heard what Yishmael ben Nesanyah had done, he gathered a large force and attacked Yishmael. The latter, seeing the size of the force, fled to Amon together with eight men.
(c)This episode, however, was only the beginning of the end. The people, fearing the vengeance of Nevuchadnetzar for the assassination of the man appointed by him to lead the people, sent a delegation, led by Yochanan ben Kare'ach, to consult with Yirmeyahu, to ask for guidance as to their next move. They promised to abide faithfully by whatever decision he would make. Yirmeyahu prayed to HaSh-m for ten days for advice. HaSh-m replied that as long as they remained in Eretz Yisrael, He would look after them and no harm would befall them. If they would move to Egypt, however, the sword of Nevuchadnetzar, which they so feared, would chase them there and destroy them. In Egypt, He warned, they would died by the sword, starvation, and pestilence.
(d)The people, though, had convinced themselves that they would be safe in Egypt, and they had already made their decision. In fact, they were already on their way there, and their consultation with Yirmeyahu was nothing more than a pretext. What they had wanted was merely his approval. When he answered in the negative, they accused him of conspiring with his disciple, Baruch ben Neryah, to deliver them into the hands of Nevuchadnetzar. They ignored his warning and fled to Egypt. Not long afterwards, everything that Yirmeyahu had foretold came true. Nevuchadnetzar attacked Egypt and wiped out the small contingent of Jews that moved to Egypt, down to the last man, exactly as the Navi had warned.
3)[line 21]רחב בשמה זינתהRACHAV BI'SHEMAH ZINSAH- a person who mentions the name Rachav becomes filled with immoral intentions
4)[line 23]מיד ניקריMIYAD NIKRI- he would immediately have an incidence of Keri (nocturnal emission)
5)[line 24]"ומרדכי ידע את כל אשר נעשה [ויקרע מרדכי את בגדיו וילבש שק ואפר ויצא בתוך העיר ויזעק זעקה גדלה ומרה]""U'MORDECHAI YADA ES KOL ASHER NA'ASAH..." - "And Mordechai knew everything that had transpired, [and Mordechai rent his garments and donned sackcloth and ashes, and he went out to the middle of city and he cried a great and bitter cry]." (Esther 4:1) (WHAT MORDECHAI KNEW, AND WHAT HE CRIED OUT)
(a)The Midrash explains that Mordechai's knowledge came from Eliyahu ha'Navi. According to Rashi, it was the angel in charge of dreams that supplied him with the information.
(b)The Gemara quotes Rav who explains that what Mordechai knew was that Haman's determination to destroy Klal Yisrael prevailed upon Achashverosh. Achashverosh may have hated the Jewish people no less than Haman, but he had no plans to cut off a significant part of his empire. Moreover, he was afraid of HaSh-m's wrath, as the Gemara later explains. It was Haman who convinced him that he had nothing to fear.
(c)Shmuel disagrees with Rav and maintains that Mordechai knew that Achashverosh's plans prevailed over those of HaSh-m, Who certainly had not planned to destroy Yisrael. As Rashi on the Megilah explains, Mordechai knew that the entire plot was not hatched on earth, but in Heaven. The Heavenly Court gave its consent to the evil decree, based on the dual sin of having prostrated themselves to the image (in the time of Nevuchadnetzar) and of having participated in the feast of Achashverosh (described at the beginning of the Megilah).
6)[line 25]גבר מלכא עילאה ממלכא תתאהGAVAR MALKA ILA'A MI'MALKA TATA'A- this is a euphemism for "the lower king (Achashveirosh) overcame the Higher (Heavenly) King"
7)[line 26]ותתחלחלVA'TISCHALCHAL- and her insides became hollow (MAHARSHA)
8)[line 32]שאין משיבין על הקלקלהSHE'EIN MESHIVIN AL HA'KALKALAH- that a messenger should not carry out the errand of a deviant
9)[line 36]ערקומא דמיאARKUMA D'MAYA- a pool of water
10)[line 41]" [הכל נתן ארונה המלך למלך] ויאמר ארונה אל המלך ה' אלקיך ירצך""[HA'KOL NASAN ARAVNAH HA'MELECH LA'MELECH,] VA'YOMER ARAVNAH EL HA'MELECH, HASH-M ELOKECHA YIRTZECHA" - "[Everything (the threshing-barn for building a Mizbe'ach, plus cattle for burnt-offerings, and a threshing-board and plowing implements for firewood) Aravnah the king gave to the king;] and Aravnah said to the king, 'HaSh-m your G-d should accept your burnt-offerings (and stop the plague).'" (Shmuel II 24:23) (DAVID HA'MELECH AND ARAVNAH)
(a)Following David's counting of the people, a terrible plague ensued that lasted three days. The Angel of Death reached the threshing-barn of Aravnah ha'Yevusi, who had been king of the Yevusi until David captured them, at which time Aravnah had converted. When David prayed for HaSh-m to stop the plague, HaSh-m sent Gad ha'Navi to him with instructions to build a Mizbe'ach at that spot and to offer sacrifices on it.
(b)When Aravnah, who had hid from the Angel of death, saw David ha'Melech, he came out to greet him and asked him why he had come. When Aravnah heard what David ha'Melech wanted, he offered as a gift all that David needed for the Korbanos, blessing him with success. David, however, insisted on paying in full, because he refused to bring free sacrifices (for which he had not paid) to HaSh-m.
(c)David paid fifty Shekels for the barn and the cattle. He constructed the Mizbe'ach and he sacrificed the cattle on it. Aravnah's blessing was fulfilled, and the plague stopped immediately.
11)[line 42]"[באדין מלכא אמר והיתיו לדניאל ורמו לגבא די אריותא ענה מלכא ואמר לדניאל] אלהך די אנת פלח לה בתדירא הוא ישיזבנך""[BEDAYIN, MALKA AMAR, V'HAISI'U L'DANIEL U'REMO L'GUBA DI ARYEVASA. ANEI MALKA V'AMAR L'DANIEL,] ELAKACH DI ANT PALACH LEI BI'TEDIRA HU YESHEZVINACH" - "[Then the king (Daryavesh) ordered them to bring Daniel and to cast him into the lion's den. The king raised his voice and said:] May your G-d to whom you prayed incessantly save you." (Daniel 6:18) (DARYAVESH, AND DANIEL IN THE LION'S DEN)
(a)After Daryavesh, King of Medes, took over the sovereignty from Bavel, he appointed a body consisting of 120 ministers to look after all affairs of state. Those 120 governors were answerable to a panel of three senior ministers, with whom they were to discuss all major issues. One of these three ministers was Daniel, who was so obviously the more intelligent and wisest of them all that Daryavesh had in mind to appoint him as Prime Minister. It is not surprising, therefore, that the other ministers were deeply jealous of Daniel, and were constantly seeking an excuse to report him to the king for breach of trust. Like Yosef in Egypt, his impeccable integrity gave them no such opportunity.
(b)They realized, however, that there was one area in which they could accuse Daniel. They realized that if Daniel was faced with a choice between his G-d and the king, he would categorically choose his G-d. Accordingly, they approached the king and requested from him, in the name of all the ministers and leaders throughout the land, that he issue a decree forbidding all of his subjects from praying to any deity or man other than to the king for the next thirty days. This royal edict was to be written in the king's own handwriting, rendering it irreversible, as was the law in Persia and Medes. The king, unable to refuse, and perhaps not realizing the ministers' motives, acceded to their request.
(c)When Daniel heard about the new decree, he arranged windows facing Yerushalayim in his attic and continued with his practice of kneeling three times daily and praying, facing the windows. Meanwhile, the ministers, who had been waiting for this opportunity, caught him praying, and a delegation promptly reported him to Daryavesh. The king, who held Daniel in the highest esteem, argued with his ministers for hours to protect Daniel from the dreaded punishment, but to no avail. All the ministers joined the delegation and proceeded to convince him of Daniel's guilt, and that the law of the land must prevail. Left with no option, Daryavesh acquiesced to their demands and sent Daniel to the lions' den, but not before praying for Daniel's safekeeping, a prayer that did not go unanswered, as the Gemara comments.
(d)In order to prevent the king from doing anything to save Daniel, the ministers placed a stone in front of the entrance to the den to ensure that he would do nothing to rescue Daniel from inside it. Daryavesh placed his seal at the entrance to ensure that the ministers would not remove Daniel in order to stone him to death. As for the lions, he argued, that was in the hands of HaSh-m, Who would protect Daniel should He so desire.
(e)The following morning, Daryavesh approached the lions' den with trepidation, and he called out to Daniel in a sad voice. To his great surprise, Daniel answered him. The king had Daniel, who had not a scratch on his body, removed from the lions' den, and put in his place the ministers who had reported him, together with their wives and children. Before they had even reached the ground, the lions attacked them, and by the time the lions had finished with them not a bone in their bodies remained intact.
(f)Following this miracle, Daryavesh ordered all of his subjects to fear the G-d of Daniel. As for Daniel, he continued in his role as Prime Minister for the remainder of Daryavesh's reign, and for the beginning of the reign of Koresh, King of Persia. He then retired and handed over the mantle of leadership to Zerubavel.
12)[line 44]"הנה הוא לך כסות עינים""HINEH HU LACH KESUS EINAYIM"- "[And to Sarah he said: Behold I have given to your 'brother' a thousand silver pieces,] may it serve to cover your eyes, [for all those who are with you, and may it enable you to prove your innocence to everybody]." (Bereishis 20:16)
13)[line 45]"ויהי כי זקן יצחק ותכהין עיניו""VA'YEHI KI ZAKEN YITZCHAK, VA'TICH'HENAH EINAV" - "And it was when Yitzchak became old, and his eyes became dim [from seeing, he called to Esav his older son and said to him, 'My son,' and he replies, 'Here I am.']" (Bereishis 27:1) (YITZCHAK'S BLINDNESS)
(a)Rashi on the verse mentions several reasons for why Yitzchak became: 1. as a result of the smoke of the sacrifices that Esav's wives offered to Avodah Zarah (mentioned in the preceding verse); 2. on account of the tears that the angels shed after he was bound on the Mizbe'ach and Avraham was about to slaughter him (others ascribe it to the fact that the Shechinah appeared and Yitzchak looked at it); 3. HaSh-m blinded him to enable Yakov to receive the blessings. The Gemara later (28a) adds two more reasons: 4. he looked into the face of Esav, who was a Rasha (and looking into the face of a Rasha causes a person to go blind); 5. he accepted "bribery" from Esav in the form of the venison that Esav would bring him ("because bribery blinds the eyes of the wise," Devarim 16:19).
(b)The Gemara here ascribes Yitzchak's blindness to Avimelech's words to Sarah, which it understands to be a curse.
14)[line 46]שופת הקדרהSHOFES KEDEIRAH- places a pot over the fire
15)[line 51]"וכל זה איננו שוה לי""V'CHOL ZEH EINENU SHOVEH LI" - "But all this is worthless to me, [all the time whenever I see Mordechai the Jew sitting at the gate of the king.]" (Esther 5:13) (RICH MAN (MORDECHAI), POOR MAN (HAMAN)
(a)The commentaries explain that the Gemara did not understand why seeing Mordechai sitting at the gate of the king would be reason to negate the immense pride and pleasure that Haman felt at being invited twice to Esther's private party with the king. That is why it cites Rav Chisda who alludes to a Midrash which refers to an episode that had taken some time before.
(b)The Midrash tells the story of Mordechai and Haman, who both had been enlisted in the Persian army, and who had been sent at the head of the troops to capture enemy territory. At the beginning of the campaign, each soldier was given a certain sum of money to see him through the campaign. Haman used up all his money before the campaign even began, while Mordechai put half his money aside to provide for his needs later. When Haman discovered that he had no money left, he approached Mordechai for a loan. Mordechai agreed, but only on condition that Haman sold himself to him as a slave. With little choice, Haman agreed. It was when Haman saw Mordechai sitting at the gate of the king, refusing to prostrate himself (before his own slave), that Haman became incensed. Some explain that (for lack of materials at the battlefront on which to write) Mordechai and Haman even wrote the contract on the sole of Mordechai's shoe. Haman became infuriated at Mordechai's tendency to lift up his foot and show him the document, to remind him of their personal relationship.
16a)[last line]בפרוזבוליPRUZBULI- (lit. a claim or document of the rich) Mordechai was Haman's master
b)[line 1]בפרוזבוטיPRUZBUTI- (lit. a claim or document of the poor) Haman was Mordechai's slave
17)[line 1]עבדא דמזדבן בטלמיAVDA D'MIZDABEN B'TALMEI- a slave that was sold for loaves of bread
18)[line 8]"לעטרת צבי...""LA'ATERES TZEVI..."- "In that day shall HaSh-m be a crown of glory, and a tiara of beauty, to the residue of His people, and as a spirit of judgment to him who sits in judgment, and for strength to those who turn the battle to the gate." (Yeshayah 28:5-6) - The Gemara interprets each phrase of these two verses.
19)[line 9]צביונוTZIVYONO- the Creator's will, desire
20)[line 11]למי שמשים עצמו כשיריםL'MI SHE'MESIM ATZMO K'SHIRAYIM- for a person who considers himself superfluous, unnecessary; i.e. for a humble person
21)[line 24]"גם אלה...""GAM ELEH..."- "But they also erred through wine, and strayed through strong drink; [the Kohen and the prophet erred through strong drink, they were confused by wine; they strayed through strong drink; they erred in vision,] they perverted judgment." (Yeshayah 28:7)
22)[line 25]"ולא תהיה זאת לך לפוקה""V'LO SIHEYEH ZOS LECHA L'FUKAH" "'And let this not serve as an obstacle [and a stumbling block for my master, and to spill innocent blood for nothing, for my master to have avenged himself, and may HaSh-m act beneficently towards my lord, and may you then remember your maidservant.' And David said to Avigayil, 'Blessed is HaSh-m, the G-d of Yisrael, who sent you today to meet me. And blessed is your advice and blessed are you for preventing me from coming to bloodshed.']" (Shmuel 1 25:31-33). (AVIGAYIL PREVENTS DAVID HA'MELECH FROM SINNING)
(a)See Background to Megilah 14:14.
(b)Avigayil argues that if David ha'Melech would carry out his plan to attack and kill her husband, Naval, it would be a "stumbling-block," as he would be accused of being a murderer. Since he was not yet the reigning monarch, he would be wiser to play down Naval's treason and to treat it with clemency. Later, once he ascended the throne, it would be a different matter.
(b)When Avigayil said "and let this not serve as an obstacle," she was referring to David ha'Melech's desire to marry her (see 14a), insinuated that even if David would later be punished for what he did with Bas Sheva (a prophecy that earned her a place among the seven prophetesses), "this" occasion would not end up in the same way. Indeed, David held back from both 'sins' and thanked her profusely for her wise advice.
23)[line 26]לפוקהL'FUKAH- as a stumbling block
24)[line 27]"ותעמד בחצר בית המלך הפנימית""VA'TA'AMOD BA'CHATZAR BEIS HA'MELECH HA'PENIMIS" - "[And it was on the third day (of fasting) that Esther donned her royal robes,] and she stood in the inner courtyard of the royal palace, [opposite the royal palace, and the king was sitting on the royal throne, facing the entrance of the palace.]" (Esther 5:1) (ESTHER ENTERS THE ROYAL PALACE WITHOUT PERMISSION)
(a)The Gemara earlier (14b) learns from the words, "and Esther donned royalty," that she dressed herself with Ru'ach ha'Kodesh (since she was a prophetess). The moment she reached the chamber of idols, which she had to pass through to reach the king's chamber, it departed from her (which is what the word "va'Ta'amod" means in this context, according to the Maharsha; the Torah Temimah suggests that since Ru'ach ha'Kodesh departed from her, her courage left her and, overcome by fear, she froze in her place and just "stood" there).
(b)Esther turned her eyes heavenwards and beseeched HaSh-m, "My G-d, my G-d, why did you forsake me..." (Tehilim 22), adding that she passed through the idol-chamber not of choice but because it was the only way to gain entry to the palace in order to plead for her people. In case HaSh-m was punishing her for referring to Achashverosh disrespectfully (by calling him a dog in her prayer), she retracted and referred to him as a lion.
(c)HaSh-m responded to her prayer and a series of miracles ensued that resulted not only in her survival but in the success of this stage of her mission.
(d)First, the fact that Achashverosh even saw her from a distance was a miracle. Second, he did not order her immediate execution for having entered without permission. Third, he was so enamored by her despite her uncomely appearance (from fasting for three days) that he immediately stretched out the royal scepter to her (a sign of goodwill). To achieve these miracles, HaSh-m sent three angels: one to stretch her neck (as this is one of the beautifying features in a woman); one to render her generally attractive (even according to those who maintain (13a) that she was naturally unattractive); and one to stretch the scepter (either 12, 16, or 24 Amos, or even 60 Amos, according to some), so that it reached almost to where Esther was standing.
25)[line 34]שריבבת(SHERIVAVTA) [SHIRBAVTA]- You lengthened, stretched
26)[line 36]"ויאמר לה המלך (לאסתר) [מה לך אסתר] המלכה ומה בקשתך עד חצי המלכות (ותעש) [וינתן לך]""VA'YOMER LAH HA'MELECH (L'ESTHER), '[MAH LACH ESTHER] HA'MALKAH, U'MAH BAKASHASECH? AD CHATZI HA'MALCHUS V'YINASEN LACH.'" - "And the king said (to Esther), '[What would you like, Esther] the queen, and what is your request? Up to half the kingdom, and (it shall be done) [it shall be given to you].'" (Esther 5:3) (The verse as quoted by the Gemara is inaccurate. It should be either Esther 5:3 (as we have recorded it, based on the note in the margin of the Gemara) or Esther 5:6.) (ACHASHVEROSH'S LIMITED OFFER)
(a)The Gemara explains that Achashverosh offered to give Esther whatever she wanted, with the exception of the rebuilding of the Beis ha'Mikdash. He offered her "up to half the kingdom" but not the entire kingdom, a reference to the one thing that lie in the middle of the kingdom (Rashi), the Beis ha'Mikdash, which was the one thing that one cause a "Chatzitzah" (interruption) in the kingdom (Torah Temimah). (It is interesting to note that at this point in time, Achashverosh was not aware that Esther was a Jewess.)
(b)It will be remembered that Koresh, king of Persia, after permitting the rebuilding of the Beis ha'Mikdash, revoked his permission almost immediately due to the interference of the Samaritans, whom Zerubavel and Nechemyah had not allowed to assist in the building of the Beis ha'Mikdash due to their suspected evil motives. The Samaritans, who felt snubbed and angry, took revenge by sending a delegation to Koresh, warning him of the threat to his kingdom should the disloyal Jews be permitted to rebuild the Beis ha'Mikdash and re-establish themselves in their land.
(c)The Samaritans did not relinquish their efforts. The moment Achashverosh came to power they sent a second delegation to repeat their warning, successfully convincing the new king to extend the prohibition and to send a royal edict to Yehudah and Yerushalayim strictly forbidding all activity connected with the construction of the Beis ha'Mikdash. This prohibition would remain in force for another ten years, until Daryavesh the Second granted them permission to rebuild the Beis ha'Mikdash.
27)[line 37]"יבוא המלך והמן אל המשתה""YAVO HA'MELECH V'HAMAN HA'YOM EL HA'MISHTEH" - "[And Esther said, 'If it is good with the king], let the king and Haman come to the party [that I will prepare tomorrow...']" (Esther 5:4) (ESTHER'S STRATEGY)
Esther's diverse strategy was ingenious. She had a profound understanding of both Haman's nature and Achashverosh's nature, and knew that HaSh-m would have mercy on His people, and she saw to it that Yisrael would do Teshuvah. Her foresight and knowledge of human nature and her ability to exploit it are evident when we bear in mind that each of the twelve reasons that she had in mind for making a party and inviting Haman to it actually played a role in the successful conclusion of her plans.
28)[line 37]פחים טמנה לוPACHIM TAMNAH LO- she concealed traps for him
29)[line 42]הפכפכןHAFACHPECHAN- wishy-washy; fickle-minded
30)[line 43]"בחומם אשית את משתיהם...""B'CHUMAM ASHIS ES MISHTEIHEM..."- "When they are heated I will make their feasts, and I will make them drunk, that they may rejoice, and sleep an everlasting sleep, and not awake, says HaSh-m." (Yirmeyahu 51:39)
31)[line 46]"שבעים בלחם נשכרו...""SEVE'IM BA'LECHEM NISKARU..."- "Those who were full have hired out themselves for bread..." (Shmuel I 2:5) - The Gemara reads the first word of this verse as "Shiv'im" for the Derashah.
32)[line 46]"בלילה ההוא נדדה שנת המלך""BA'LAILAH HA'HU NADEDAH SHENAS HA'MELECH" - " On that night, the king's sleep was disturbed, [and he ordered to bring the book of records, the chronicles, and they were being read before the king.]" (Esther 6:1) (ACHASHVEROSH'S SLEEP IS DISTURBED)
(a)According to the simple explanation, it was Achashverosh who could not sleep, for fear that Esther and Haman were arranging some sort of plot to assassinate him. He was wondering why none of his loyal ministers divulged their plans to him. Perhaps, he concluded, it was because he had not repaid a kindness that someone had done for him, and that was what made him unpopular among the people. He decided to examine the royal book of chronicles for any record of an unrewarded kind deed.
(b)The Midrash ascribes his inability to sleep to a dream in which Haman took a sword to kill him, causing him to wake up in a cold sweat. It is understandable, then, that when Haman arrived at the palace shortly afterwards, the king took immediate steps to humiliate him (Torah Temimah).
(c)The Gemara understands from the fact that the verse makes no mention of anyone reading the book to the king that the words called out from the book of chronicles without anybody reading them. Rashi describes Shimshi, the scribe who was in charge of the book of chronicles, as a Jew-hater already from the time of Koresh (according to Targum Yonasan, he was a son of Haman). Furthermore, the Torah Temimah cites the Midrash which relates how - when the pages opened at the episode of Bigsan and Teresh's plot and Mordechai's disclosure of the plot to the king - Shimshi quickly turned over the pages to avoid having to read the praises of Mordechai the Jew. HaSh-m ordered the pages to turn themselves back and to call out that episode by themselves. Moreover, when Shimshi began to erase the episode from the book of chronicles, the angel Gavriel rewrote it, as the Gemara goes on to relate.
33)[line 51]דרחים ליD'RACHIM LI- who likes me
34)[line 51]דהוה מודע ליD'HAVAH MODA LI- who would let me know