1) [line 12] MI SHE'PARA - (lit. He Who took retribution) a Rabbinic curse that begins with the words "He Who took retribution"
(a) A person who pays money to purchase Metaltelin (mobile goods) does not acquire them by paying for them until he performs Meshichah (see Background to Kidushin 22:22) upon them. Therefore, both the buyer and the seller may retract from the purchase until Meshichah or another valid Kinyan is performed. (There are those who are of the opinion that paying for the goods does not effect a Kinyan mid'Oraisa. Others hold that it does effect a Kinyan mid'Oraisa, but the Rabanan instituted that the buyer and seller may still retract until the buyer does Meshichah -- Bava Metzia 47a). However, it is not proper for a person to go back on his word and retract a sale after money has been received for the goods being sold. If either the buyer or the seller do retract at such a point, they have not acted in the manner of proper, upstanding Jews (RAMBAM Hilchos Mechirah 7:1).
(b) If one of them wishes to retract in any case, he is brought to Beis Din to accept upon himself the curse of "Mi she'Para" from Beis Din. Beis Din says to him, "He Who took retribution from the Generation of the Flood (Bereishis 6:1 - 7:23) and from the Generation of the Dispersion (Bereishis 11:1-9) and from the inhabitants of Sedom and Amora (Bereishis 19:24-25) and from the Egyptians who were drowned in the sea (Shemos 14:26-31) will punish he who does not stand by his word" (Bava Metzia 48a).
2) [line 15] MITZVOS ASEH SHEHA'ZEMAN GERAMA
Mitzvos which must be performed at a specific time of the day belong to the category called Mitzvas Aseh sheha'Zeman Gerama. Some examples are Sukah, Lulav, Shofar, Tefilin and Tzitzis. Women are exempt from these Mitzvos, with the exception of Kidush on Friday night, Matzah on Pesach night, the Korban Pesach, Hakhel, and Simchah on Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos. (RAMBAM Hilchos Avodah Zarah 12:3)
3) [line 20] BAL TAKIF
(a) It is forbidden by a Lav in the Torah for a Jewish male to remove his or another Jewish male's sideburns, thus making a continuous hairless line from his face until behind his ears, as the Torah states, "Lo Sakifu Pe'as Roshechem..." - "You shall not make a ring [around the tops of your heads by removing the hair] of the corners of your heads..." (Vayikra 19:27). The reason for this prohibition is to distance us from idol worship and its followers who until this day cut their hair in this fashion. If one cuts off both sideburns, he receives Malkos two times. The Rambam (Hilchos Avodah Zarah 12:6) writes that he has a tradition in his family teaching that it is required to leave at least forty hairs in the sideburns.
(b) According to most authorities, it is prohibited to entirely remove the hair of the sideburns with either a razor or a pair of scissors. The prohibition of Hakafah applies to both the barber and the one whose hair is being cut, if he helps the barber (by moving his head to the correct position). It is prohibited to cut the hair of a male minor as well. Although this prohibition only applies to a man and not to a woman (whether her hair is being cut or whether she is cutting the hair of a man), nevertheless, it is forbidden mid'Rabanan for a woman to cut the hair of a man or a boy.
(c) It is likewise forbidden to shave off all of the hair of the head (Hakafas Kol ha'Rosh). There is a disagreement among the Tana'im as to whether this is included in the prohibition of Hakafah and is mid'Oraisa, since all of the hair of the head includes the sideburns (Yevamos 5a, Nazir 41a), or if it is only forbidden mid'Rabanan (Nazir 29a), since the Torah only prohibits making a shaven ring around the remaining hair. (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #251)
4) [line 20] BAL TASHCHIS
(a) It is forbidden by a Lav in the Torah for a Jewish male to remove any of the five "corners" of his or another Jewish male's beard with a razor, as the verse states, "...v'Lo Sashchis Es Pe'as Zekanecha." - "...nor shall you mar the corners of your beard." (Vayikra 19:27). One who transgresses this prohibition is liable to Malkos. From the word "Tashchis," Chazal learn that the prohibition only includes shaving with a razor (Makos 21a), since only a razor leads to Hashchasah, or destruction of the hair.
(b) The Rishonim argue as to which exact sections comprise the "corners" of the beard that are included in this prohibition. The current practice is not to shave any part of the beard with a razor.
(c) The prohibition of Hashchasah applies both to the person shaving and to the one being shaved, if he helps the shaver (by moving his head to the correct position). It is prohibited to shave the beard of a male minor as well. It is permitted for a woman to be shaved by a man or to shave the beard of a man. (RAMBAM Hilchos Avodah Zarah 12:7; see Chart #13, Nazir 57b)
5) [line 21] BAL TITAMEI L'MESIM
(a) The Torah (Vayikra 21:1-4) forbids Kohanim from coming into contact with corpses while concurrently commanding them to handle the burial of certain relatives. Those relatives are the Kohen's mother, father, son, daughter, brother, sister from his father (if she is an unmarried virgin), and wife (if the wife is permitted to be married to him).
(b) If a Kohen is married to a woman with Kidushin mid'Rabanan (e.g. if she married him as a minor after her father died), her husband is allowed and required to handle her burial. (The Gemara (Yevamos 89b) concludes that the Kohen is actually permitted to bury her mid'Oraisa, even though she is only married to him with a Kidushin mid'Rabanan. Since the Kohen inherits her, nobody else will handle her burial, and therefore she is like a Mes Mitzvah -- see Background to Sotah 45:31 and Insights to Yevamos 89b.)
(c) The prohibition to come into contact with a corpse applies only to male Kohanim who are not Chalalim. (However, immediately before, and during, the three pilgrimage holidays (Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos), every Jew, male or female, is commanded to be Tahor -- RASHI to Yevamos 29b DH v'Lo Mitames.) The positive command to handle the burial of the seven relatives mentioned above (a) applies not only to Kohanim, but also to all Jews.
6) [line 29] L'MULO (MILAH)
A Jewish father has a Mitzvas Aseh to see that a Bris Milah is performed on his son, as the verse states, "va'Yamal Avraham Es Yitzchak Beno..." (Bereishis 21:4). If he does not fulfill his obligation, Beis Din is required to have him circumcised (ibid. 17:10). If Beis Din is likewise lax or unable to fulfill this Mitzvah, when the boy grows up, he must have Milah performed upon himself (ibid. 17:14). The punishment for a man who is not circumcised and refuses to fulfill the Mitzvah of Milah is Kares (ibid., see RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Milah 1:1-2).
7) [line 29] LIFDOSO (PIDYON HA'BEN - the redemption of the firstborn son)
(a) The Torah requires that every Yisrael sanctify the firstborn male of his children, Kosher animals and donkeys, as it is written, "Kadesh Li Kol Bechor, Peter Kol Rechem bi'Vnei Yisrael, ba'Adam uva'Behemah; Li Hu." - "Sanctify to Me every firstborn that initiates the womb among the children of Yisrael, among both man and beast; it is Mine." (Shemos 13:2)
(b) The Mitzvah of Pidyon ha'Ben applies to a Yisrael and not to a Kohen or a Levi. The first male born to a mother (who is the daughter of a Yisrael) must be redeemed by his father (as stated in Shemos 13:13, "v'Chol Bechor Adam b'Vanecha Tifdeh." The Bechor must be redeemed when he is one month old by giving five silver Shekalim of Kodesh (each of which weighs 19.2 or 17 grams; see Midos v'Shi'urei Torah, C. P. Benish, Benei Brak, 5760, pp. 487-488) to a Kohen as stated in Bamidbar (18:16). This applies only if the son was the first issue (i.e. he was not preceded by a Nefel -- stillborn) and was delivered through the womb (i.e. he was not delivered by Caesarian section). (Sefer ha'Chinuch #392)
(c) A number of reasons are given for this Mitzvah. One reason is that HaSh-m wanted to give us merit by having us perform a Mitzvah with the first produce of our efforts so that we should realize that everything is His. A person comes to this understanding when after all his toil he takes these first products, which are as dear to him as the apple of his eye, and gives them to HaSh-m. Another reason for this Mitzvah is to remember the great miracle that HaSh-m did for us by killing the firstborn of Egypt. (Sefer ha'Chinuch #18)
8) [line 29] L'LAMDO TORAH - to teach him Torah
9) [line 29] L'HASI'O ISHAH - to take a wife for him
10) [line 30] L'LAMDO UMNUS - to teach him a trade. The Tana'im argue as to whether teaching the child how to engage in business fulfills this obligation or not. The Halachah follows the opinion that it does (ROSH #40, according to the KORBAN NESANEL #90).
11) [line 30] L'HASHITO B'MAYIM - to teach him how to swim
12) [line 32] LISTUS - armed robbery
13) [line 40] ZIRUZ, MIYAD UL'DOROS - to make active and zealous in the performance of Mitzvos, for then and for all succeeding generations
14) [line 41] "V'TZAV ES YEHOSHUA V'CHAZKEHU V'AMTZEHU..." - "But charge Yehoshua, and encourage him, and strengthen him; [for he shall go over before this people, and he shall cause them to inherit the land which you shall see.]" (Devarim 3:28)
15) [line 44] DICHSIV TIPADEH TIFDEH - the word "Tifdeh" can be read "Tipadeh" to offer a homiletic insight that the verse teaches, that only one who is obligated to redeem himself may redeem others (the Gemara goes on to prove why a woman is not obligated to redeem herself, etc.)
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