BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
[13a - 50 lines; 13b - 55 lines]
1) [line 4] פר כהן משיח PAR KOHEN MASHI'ACH
2) [line 15] בנה אב BANAH AV (BINYAN AV)
(a) In a Beraisa found in the introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash on Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists the thirteen methodologies employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is "Binyan Av." A Binyan Av (literally, "building through a father"; "father" in this sense means a Torah source) refers to the establishment of a certain law in one area of the Torah, and then applying it to other comparable circumstances.
(b) If the Torah goes out of its way to establish an identical law in two different area of Halachah, however, then this law may not be applied in other areas. If we were meant to do so, then the Torah would have established the law once, leaving us to apply it as applicable through a Binyan Av. That which the Torah specified the law twice implies that it is meant to apply only in the instances where the Torah specifies it.
3) [line 16] פר עבודת כוכבים PAR AVODAS KOCHAVIM
(a) The Sanhedrin (the Jewish Supreme Court) is obligated to bring a Korban in the following instance. If they issued a mistaken ruling permitting an act that carries a Chiyuv Kares, instructed the Jewish people to act according to their ruling and the people in Eretz Yisrael (the majority of the people or the majority of the tribes) conducted themselves based upon this ruling. The sages bring twelve young bulls as Korbenos Chatas, one on behalf of each of the tribes. The people are exempt, since they relied upon the Beis Din ha'Gadol. If the sin committed was idolatry, the sages bring young bulls as Korbenos Olah and goats as Korbenos Chatas, one of each for each tribe. Each of these bulls is called a Par He'elem Davar Shel Tzibur (RAMBAM Hilchos Shegagos 12:1).
4) [line 17] במערבא B'MA'ARAVA - (lit. "in the west") in Eretz Yisrael
5) [line 19] לכבשת יחיד L'CHIVSHAS YACHID - a she-goat offering of an individual
6) [line 21] נתרבתה NISRABSAH - it has been made important
7) [line 21] באליה B'ALYAH - with regard to the tail
8) [line 22] שתי הלחם SHTEI HA'LECHEM
(a) The Shtei ha'Lechem Minchah brought on Shavu'os (Vayikra 23:16-17) consists of two loaves of bread made from two Esronim of fine wheat flour (approximately 4.32, 4.98 or 8.64 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) mixed with Se'or (sourdough), which causes them to rise and become Chametz. Each loaf is seven Tefachim long (approximately 53.2, 56 or 67.2 cm) and four Tefachim wide (30.4, 32 or 38.4 cm); the corners of the loaves project upward to a height of four Etzba'os (Menachos 96a, RAMBAM Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:10). It was baked from "Chadash," the newly grown wheat (Vayikra 23:17).
(b) In conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem, the Kohanim offer in the name of the Tzibur various Korbenos Olah, a goat as a Korban Chatas and two sheep (the Kivsei Atzeres) that are Zivchei Shelamim (Vayikra 23:18-19). Tenufah (waving portions of Korbanos, see ) of the Shtei ha'Lechem is performed twice; once along with the live sheep and once with the Chazeh and Shok (the chest and the two upper sections of the right hind leg, until the hip joint) of both sheep.
(c) Until the Shtei ha'Lechem are offered, there is a prohibition to offer Menachos of Chadash in the Beis ha'Mikdash, which is removed after they are offered (Menachos 68b).
9) [line 22] בגין B'GIN - because of
10) [line 24] מבית השבי MI'BEIS HA'SHEVI - from captivity
11) [line 29] משוח בשמן המשחה MASHU'ACH B'SHEMEN HA'MISCHAH - the Kohen Gadol who is] anointed with the Shemen ha'Mishchah (see )
12) [line 31] משוח מלחמה MASHU'ACH MILCHAMAH - (MILCHEMES RESHUS)
13) [line 31] לסגן L'SEGAN - the deputy Kohen Gadol, who has been prepared to officiate in place of the Kohen Gadol, should he become unfit to do the Avodah (RASHI to Sotah 40b). According to the Girsa in Yoma 39a, he always stays at the Kohen Gadol's right-hand side.
14) [line 32] לאמרכל L'AMARKAL - the overseers of the treasurers
15) [line 32] לגזבר L'GIZBAR - the treasurer of Hekdesh
16) [line 33] ראש בית אב ROSH BEIS AV - the leader of the family of Kohanim who are on duty in the Beis ha'Mikdash on that day (MISHMAROS: BATEI AVOS)
(a) The Kohanim were divided into 24 shifts according to their families (Mishmaros), each of which served in the Mikdash for two weeks out of a year. The Mishmaros changed on Shabbos, when the outgoing Mishmar did the Avodah in the morning and the incoming Mishmar did the Avodah in the afternoon.
(b) Every Mishmar was further divided into six Batei Avos, with the Kohanim of each Beis Av serving on a different day of the week. A leader of each Beis Av was chosen, and he was known as the Rosh Beis Av. On Shabbos, all the Batei Avos of the Mishmar did the Avodah together (RASHI Menachos 107b). Some contend that the Mishmaros were divided into seven, and not six, groups, and only one group served on Shabbos (RASHI to Ta'anis 26a - for more on this, see ).
(c) On the Shalosh Regalim (the holidays of Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos) all of the Mishmaros Kehunah came to Yerushalayim to fulfill the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel. At those times, Kohanim from any Mishmar were permitted to do the Avodah of the Regel.
17) [line 35] מת מצוה MES MITZVAH - if a Jew is found dead with no known relatives to attend to his corpse, it is termed a Mes Mitzvah. One who comes across a Mes Mitzvah is obligated to see to its burial (RAMBAM Hilchos Avel 3:8).
18) [line 37] ממזר MAMZER
(a) There are prohibited marital relations that invalidate the ensuing offspring and render them Mamzerim. The Tana'im argue as to the nature of these prohibited relations. According to Rebbi Yehoshua, they must be relations that are punishable by Misas Beis Din (see ). Rebbi Shimon ha'Timni rules that all relations that are punishable by Kares, even if they are not punishable by Misas Beis Din, produce a Mamzer (fem. Mamzeres). According to Rebbi Akiva, even relations that are prohibited by a Lav produce a Mamzer (Yevamos 49a). Other Tana'im argue regarding the opinion of Rebbi Akiva. There are those who assert that he rules that only relations prohibited by a Lav produce a Mamzer. Others hold that even those prohibited by an Aseh produce a Mamzer (except for a Kohen Gadol who has relations with a non-virgin - Kesuvos 30a). The Halachah follows the opinion of Rebbi Shimon ha'Timni, that only relations punishable by Kares produce a Mamzer (Yevamos ibid.)
(b) A Mamzer is prohibited to marry into the community of HaSh-m, that is, Jewish people of unsullied lineage. He may, however, marry a Mamzeres and a Giyores (MISHNAH Kidushin 69a). The Tana'im and Amora'im argue as to whether a Safek Mamzer is prohibited mid'Oraisa to marry both a Mamzeres and a Jewess of unsullied lineage, because of the doubt, or whether he is permitted mid'Oraisa to marry either of them, since he is not included in the category of Mamzer that the Torah prohibited (Yevamos 37a, Kidushin 73a, 74a).
19) [line 37] לנתין L'NESIN
(a) In the times of Yehoshua, the Giv'onim (a people of the Chivi, one of the seven nations whom the Jewish People were commanded to destroy upon entering Eretz Yisrael) came and presented themselves before Yehoshua as if they came from a far-off land. Since they claimed not to be residents of Eretz Yisrael, they requested to be converted and to make peace with the Jewish People. After Yehoshua agreed to accept them, it was discovered that they were one of the seven prohibited nations. Having already accepted them, Yehoshua did not want to break his oath and covenant with them (even though they tricked him and the oath was uttered in error) so as not to cause a Chilul HaSh-m (a desecration of HaSh-m's Name). Yehoshua accepted them and appointed them to be woodchoppers and water drawers to supply the needs for the sacrificial service on the Mizbe'ach (Yehoshua 9:3-27). Earlier, in the times of Moshe Rabeinu, Giv'onim also came to be converted as they did in the times of Yehoshua, and Moshe also made them woodchoppers and water drawers. (This incident is not written explicitly. It is stated in the Gemara Yevamos 79a, and is based on the verse in Devarim 29:10.) These people became known as "Nesinim," (from the root "Nasan," to give) since they were "given over" by Moshe and Yehoshua ["va'Yitenem..." - "And he appointed them..." (Yehoshua 9:27)] to perform the tasks of chopping wood and drawing water.
(b) A Nesin is prohibited to marry into the community of HaSh-m, that is, Jewish people of unsullied lineage. RASHI and TOSFOS (Kesuvos 29a and elsewhere) argue as to whether they are prohibited mid'Oraisa or mid'Rabanan. We find that the Gemara (Yevamos 79a) states that Moshe Rabeinu "decreed" regarding the Nesinim of his generation, and Yehoshua extended the "decree" to last as long as the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash would stand. David ha'Melech later extended the "decree" to include all time, even if the Beis ha'Mikdash would be destroyed (because of the trait of cruelty that the Nesinim exhibited, which showed that they were not worthy of uniting with the descendants of Avraham, Yitzchak and Yakov). According to Rashi, these decrees were prohibitions against marriage, and as such the prohibition against marrying Nesinim is an Isur mid'Rabanan. According to Tosfos, these decrees were appointments of servitude. The prohibition against marrying them, though, is mid'Oraisa, since the Torah commands against marrying the seven prohibited nations even if they convert to Judaism (Yevamos 76a).
20) [line 37] לעבד משוחרר L'EVED MESHUCHRAR - a freed slave (EVED MESHUCHRAR)
A Jew who owns a Nochri slave or maidservant (an Eved Kena'ani or a Shifchah Kena'anis) may release him or her from bondage in one of two ways: by accepting payment for his release, or by giving him a "Get Shichrur," or bill of release (Kidushin 22b). If he is not released in one of these two ways, he is still considered to be a slave for all Halachic matters (such as with regard to whom he is allowed to marry and what Mitzvos he is obligated to keep).
21) [line 50] שעכבר SHE'ACHBAR - a mouse (some sources appear to include a rat in the definition of Achbar as well)
22) [line 50] שסורן רע SHE'SURAN RA - that their nature is evil
23) [line 50] גלימי גייצי GELIMEI GAITZEI - they gnaw through even garments
24) [line 1] אפילו שופתא מרא גייצי AFILU SHUFSA MARA GAITZEI - they gnaw through even the handle of a shovel
25) [line 2] משכחים MESHAKACHIM - they cause one to forget
26) [line 4] והרגיל בזיתים VEHA'RAGIL B'ZEISIM - and one who regularly eats olives
27) [line 5] שיורי רחיצה SHIYUREI RECHITZAH - water left over from bathing
28) [line 8] פת פחמים PAS PECHAMIM - bread baked on coals
29) [line 9] ביצה מגולגלת BEITZAH MEGULGELES - a roasted egg that is still soft inside
30) [line 20] וסימניך קמיצה V'SIMANACH KEMITZAH - your sign (mnemonic) to remember this is "Kemitzah." finger. The word "Kemitzah" here refers to the ring finger, the finger between the Zeres (pinky) and the Amah (middle finger) (see ). It is called the "Kemitzah" due to its centrol role in the Kemitzah service of Korbenos Minchah (see Background ibid.). When that finger is bent inwards, one sees to one side of it a single finger (the smallest), and to the other side two fingers (the middle finger and the index finger). This is a way to remember that one Tana says "one" and the other Tana says "two."
31) [line 21] האפסר HA'AFSAR - (O.F. chevestre) the halter, a rope with a noose or head stall for leading horses or cattle
32) [line 27] מזוהמה ליסטרון MI'ZUHAMAH LISTERON - the froth that accumulates on the spoon used to stir cooking meat
33) [line 32] מפסיעין על ראשי העם MAFSI'IN AL ROSHEI HA'AM - they may tread upon the heads of the people, i.e. step over the heads of the students seated on the floor in order to exit the Beis ha'Midrash and carry out their assignments
34) [line 33] פרנס PARNAS - a community leader
35) [line 36] סניפין SENIFIN - attachments
36) [line 38] דחלשא עלמא D'CHALSHA ALMA - people have become weaker
37) [line 44] נתקין מילתא כי לדידן NETAKIN MILSA KI L'DIDAN - let us make an enactment like he did to us
38) [line 45] גלי עוקצים דלית ליה GALEI UKTZIM D'LEIS LEI - let us expound on Maseches Uktzin since he does not know it
39) [line 46] נעבריה NE'AVREI - we will remove him (Raban Shimon ben Gamliel) from office
40) [line 47] כיסופא KISUFA - embarrassment
41) [line 47] עיליתיה ILISEI - his upper chamber (of Raban Shimon ben Gamliel)
42) [line 48] יהב דעתיה YAHAV DA'ATEI - he put his mind to it
43) [line 50] בפתקא B'PITKA - [they would write their questions] on a tablet
44) [line 52] אסיקו ASIKU - they called him by the name of...
45) [line 53] אחוו להו ACHAVU LEHU - they showed to them [in a dream]
46) [line 54] נהי דאהני לך קמרא דאבוך NEHI D'AHANI LACH KAMRA D'AVUCH L'MEHEVEI - although you father's golden sash (i.e. position of authority) helped you [to become the Av Beis Din]