BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
[12a - 53 lines; 12b - 53 lines]
1) [line 2] וצנצנת המן V'TZINTZENES HA'MAN - the flask of Manna [which Aharon put away in the Aron in order to show it to future generations (Shemos 16:33)]
2) [line 3] שקדיה ופרחיה SHEKADEHA U'FERACHEHA - [the staff of Aharon with] its almonds and blossoms
3) [line 15] באפרסמא דכיא B'AFARSEMA DACHYA - with pure balsam oil
4) [line 16] כמין נזר K'MIN NEZER - like a crown
5) [line 17] כמין כי K'MIN KI - like the Greek letter "chi," which is shaped like an "x" (RASHI to Kerisus 5b, RAMBAM Hilchos Klei ha'Mikdash 1:9)
6) [line 18] מוצקין MOTZKIN - they pour [oil on the Kohen's head]
7) [line 19] ריסי עיניו RISEI EINAV - his eyelids
8) [line 23] יציקה YETZIKAH - pouring [the remainder of the oil onto the dough of the Minchah, the third time that the Kohen pours oil in the preparation of the Menachos]
9) [line 30] מרגליות MARGOLIYOS - pearls. (These two pearl-size drops of oil served as two witnesses against Korach and his assembly that HaSh-m indeed chose Aharon to be the Kohen Gadol.)
10) [line 30] בזקנו B'ZEKANO - in his beard
11) [line 30] עולות ויושבות OLOS V'YOSHVOS - [the drops] ascended and sat (or were lodged) in his beard miraculously
12) [line 36] אי מסיק שתיה IY MASIK SHATEI - if he will complete his year (he will live out the year)
13) [line 36] ניתלי שרגא NISLI SHRAGA - let him light a candle
14) [line 37] דלא נשיב זיקא D'LO NASHIV ZIKA - [in a house] where no wind blows
15) [line 37] אי משיך נהוריה IY MESHICH NEHOREI - if the light continues to burn
16) [line 38] בעיסקא B'ISKA - in a business venture
17) [line 38] מצלח MATZLACH - he will succeed
18) [line 38] אי שמין ושפר IY SHAMIN V'SHAPAR - if it (the rooster) grows fat and beautiful
19) [line 39] בביתא דחברא B'VEISA D'CHAVRA - lit. in the house of his friend. Here, this means he stands in a dark house.
20) [line 40] בבואה דבבואה BAVU'AH D'VAVU'AH - the shadow of a shadow (i.e. an extended, or especially dark, shadow - see Pischei Teshuvah EH 17:49)
21) [line 40] חלשא דעתיה ומיתרע מזליה CHALSHA DA'ATEI U'MISRA MAZLEI - he will become upset (when he does not see a good omen), and this will cause his fortune (Mazal) to go bad
22) [line 41] סימנא מלתא היא SIMANA MILSA HI - an omen is something of significance
23) [line 41] בריש שתא B'REISH SHATA - at the beginning of the year, Rosh Hashanah
24a) [line 41] קרא KARA - gourd
b) [line 41] ורוביא V'RUBYA - and black-eyed peas
c) [line 42] כרתי KARTEI - leeks
d) [line 42] וסילקא V'SILKA - and beets (alt. boiled vegetables)
e) [line 42] ותמרי V'TAMREI - dates
25) [line 42] גרסו מתניתא GIRSU MASNISA - learn Mishnah
26) [line 43] חזו לפומיה CHAZU L'FUMEI - look at his face
27) [line 44] נהרא דמיא NAHARA D'MAYA - [study by] a river of water
28) [line 44] דמשכן מיא D'MASHCHAN MAYA - the river flows continuously. Just as a river naturally flows from the high places to the low ones, so may the haughty attitude with which you may be studying evolve into a humble one, for Torah knowledge is retained only by one who is humble. (MAHARSHA)
29) [line 44] אקילקלי A'KILKELEI - on the garbage heaps
30) [line 45] אפנדי APADNEI - mansions
31) [line 45] גלדנא סריא GILDENA SARYA - a spoiled small fish
32) [line 45] דרמי כיפי מכותחא MI'KUSCHA D'RAMEI KEIFEI - [is better] than a Kutach dish (a dip prepared by cooking whey with stale bread and salt), which is so strong that it can be said (in exaggeration) that it would break stones if poured on them (i.e. it is of high quality)
33) [line 46] רמה קרני ולא רמה פכי RAMAH KARNI V'LO RAMAH PACHI - "My horn shall become exalted, and my jar shall not become exalted." This alludes to the fact that the anointing of David was done with oil poured from a horn, and thus his sovereignty endured ("was exalted"). Shaul and Yehu, in contrast, were anointed with oil poured from an ordinary jar, and their sovereignty did not endure. (When Shaul died his descendants did not succeed him as king.)
34) [line 47] מרובה בגדים MERUBEH B'VEGADIM
35) [line 48] משוח מלחמה MESHU'ACH MILCHAMAH (MILCHEMES RESHUS)
(a) A Milchemes Reshus is the term used to refer to a war begun by the Jewish people of their own volition. One example of such a war was that waged by David ha'Melech against Aram Tzova (Syria) in order to annex that territory to Eretz Yisrael. A king may not mobilize his troops for a Milchemes Reshus without the approval of the Beis Din ha'Gadol (court of seventy-one judges; Sanhedrin 20b).
(b) A Kohen is appointed at the onset of war to motivate and encourage the soldiers. This Kohen is anointed with the Shemen ha'Mishchah (see ), and he is referred to as the Kohen Meshu'ach Milchamah (Sotah 42a; see ). Shotrim (officers) are appointed to lead the troops in battle. All soldiers must be at least twenty years of age. In addition, the soldiers must meet certain requirements in order to fulfill the injunction of "v'Hayah Machanecha Kadosh" - "and your [war] camp shall be holy" (Devarim 23:15, RAMBAM Hilchos Melachim 6:14-15).
(c) Before the soldiers leave Eretz Yisrael for the battlefront, the Kohen Meshu'ach Milchamah reads the portion of the Torah (Devarim 20:5-7) which details those who are exempt from the battle. These are: 1. one who built a house but has not yet moved into it; 2. one who planted a vineyard but has not yet redeemed its fourth-year fruits (Orlah; see ); and 3. one who betrothed a woman but has not yet married her. A Shoter then reads the next verse (ibid. 20:8), which states that all who are afraid of the battle should return to their homes, lest their attitude rub off on the remaining soldiers.
36) [line 52] פר הבא על כל המצות PAR HA'BA AL KOL HA'MITZVOS (PAR HE'ELEM DAVAR SHEL TZIBUR)
37) [line 2] פר יום הכפורים PAR YOM HA'KIPURIM
(a) In Parshas Acharei Mos (Vayikra 16:3-6), Aharon is commanded to offer on Yom ha'Kipurim a bull as a Chatas and a ram as an Olah from his own money. From the money of the Tzibur, he is commanded to offer two goats as Korbenos Chatas (one goat was sacrificed and one was sent to Azazel) and one ram as an Olah. The offering of these Korbanos form the major part of the Yom ha'Kipurim service that the Kohen Gadol must perform every year.
(b) The Kohen Gadol sprinkles the blood of the bull in the Kodshei Kodashim (Vayikra 16:14), on the Paroches (ibid. 16:16) and on the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores (ibid. 16:18). Its flesh is entirely burned in the place outside of Yerushalayim where the ashes from the Mizbe'ach are deposited. The remainder of its blood is poured on the western Yesod of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon, but omitting this last procedure does not prevent atonement, because during the rest of the year pouring the blood on the Yesod is not a requirement for atonement.
38) [line 2] ועשירית האיפה VA'ASIRIS HA'EIFAH (CHAVITEI KOHEN GADOL)
The Kohen Gadol offers a Minchah every day that consists of 1/10 of an Eifah of wheat flour made into twelve wafers or rolls. They were fried in olive oil in a flat pan after being boiled and baked. Half of the rolls were offered in the morning and half towards evening. They were completely burned on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 6:12-15). The Chavitin had to be brought from the money of the Kohen Gadol, but he did not actually have to offer them on the Mizbe'ach.
39) [line 13] מעלין בקודש ואין מורידין MA'ALIN BA'KODESH V'EIN MORIDIN
MA'ALIN BA'KODESH V'LO MORIDIN
Once a person or object attains a certain level of holiness, we may not subsequently lower its status. We may only raise it to a higher level.
40) [line 15] ונסיב לה V'NASIV LAH ALIBA D'TANA'EI - he quoted it according to the opinions of [two] Tana'im
41) [line 20] לא פורע ולא פורם LO PORE'A V'LO POREM (PERI'AH/PERIMAH)
A mourner must let his hair grow (Peri'ah) and make a tear (Perimah) of at least a Tefach in the upper part of his clothes as is learned from the verse in Vayikra (10:6), where Aharon and his sons were instructed not to perform these Mitzvos. (RAMBAM Hilchos Avel 8:1)
42) [line 23] ומחזיר את הרוצח U'MACHAZIR ES HA'ROTZE'ACH - and through his death (the Kohen Gadol) the unintentional murderer returns to his house
43) [line 23] אונן ONEN - the Halachic status of a mourner immediately after a close relative's death (ANINUS)
(a) A person is called an Onen mid'Oraisa on the day of death of one of his seven closest relatives for whom he is required to arrange for burial (i.e. father, mother, brother, sister, son, daughter and wife). Chazal (Zevachim 101a) learn the Halachah of Aninus from the verse, "v'Achalti Chatas ha'Yom, ha'Yitav b'Einei HaSh-m?" (Vayikra 10:19). Among the Halachos that apply to an Onen is that a Kohen Onen is prohibited from doing the Avodah (divine service) in the Beis ha'Mikdash unless he is the Kohen Gadol (Vayikra 10:7, 21:1-4). Moreover, an Onen (even the Kohen Gadol) may not eat Kodshim, Terumah and Ma'aser Sheni.
(b) Besides the prohibition against an Onen performing the Avodah, eating Kodshim, etc. mid'Oraisa, the Rabanan extended the prohibitions even after Aninus mid'Oraisa has passed. However, the Tana'im and Rishonim argue as to the nature of this Gezeirah. They also argue as to whether Aninus mid'Oraisa always applies for the entire day or for part of the day in certain cases. With regard to these questions, Aninus may be broken into five time periods, as follows:
1. The day of death, before burial: according to all opinions Aninus mid'Oraisa applies, as above.
2. The day of death, after burial: according to Rashi (Pesachim 90b DH ha'Onen, Zevachim 15b DH Onen), only Aninus mid'Rabanan applies. According to the Ramban (Toras ha'Adam), Aninus mid'Oraisa still applies.
3. The night after the day of death (according to Rashi in #2, before burial; according to Ramban in #2, even after burial): the Tana'im argue if the Aninus is mid'Oraisa or mid'Rabanan (Zevachim 99b). Most of the Rishonim rule that the Aninus is not mid'Oraisa but rather mid'Rabanan.
4. The days after the day of death, even if the body has not been buried: Aninus only applies mid'Rabanan (Zevachim 100b) until the end of the day of burial. Also on the day of "Likut Atzamos" (when the remains of one of the close relatives are exhumed and re-buried elsewhere), the Rabanan decreed that the person is an Onen for that entire day.
5. The night after the day of burial: the Tana'im (Zevachim 100b) argue whether the person is an Onen mid'Rabanan or not at all, and the Halachah follows the opinion that he is not an Onen at all.
44) [line 36] קריו KERYO - the Kohen Gadol who passed temporarily from office had a seminal emission
45) [line 42] מקמי שפה MI'KAMEI SAFAH - below the border. It is the border that reinforces the neck-opening. Shmuel maintains that the Kohen Gadol may poke a hole in the garment just below the border and tear down from there.
46) [line 45] קרע של תפלות KERA SHEL TIFLUS - a rending of one's garment that is insignificant
47) [line 46] סוטה SOTAH
(a) A Sotah is a woman who is suspected of committing adultery because she was warned by her husband not to seclude herself with a certain man and she violated the warning. The process of warning her in front of witnesses is called Kinuy. The witnesses who see her seclude herself with the suspected adulterer are called Eidei Stirah. The time of seclusion must be at least for the time that it takes to roast an egg and swallow it. The woman is forbidden to her husband and the alleged adulterer until she drinks Mei Sotah (see (c), below).
(b) The husband must bring his wife to the Beis ha'Mikdash, along with a sacrifice consisting of 1/10 of an Eifah (approx. 2 quarts) of barley meal as a Minchah offering. The Kohen reads Parshas Sotah, the portion of the Torah describing the curses with which a Sotah is cursed, out loud (in any language that the Sotah understands) and makes the Sotah swear that she has been faithful to her husband.
(c) An earthenware jug is then filled with half a Log of water from the Kiyor, and dirt from the floor of the Azarah is placed on top of the water. Parshas Sotah (that contains numerous appearances of HaSh-m's name) is written on parchment and then immersed in the water, which causes the ink to dissolve, erasing the Holy Names. The Sotah afterwards drinks from the water. If she was unfaithful to her husband and allowed herself to become defiled, the water would enter her body and poison her, causing her belly to swell out and her thigh to rupture. If she was faithful to her husband, she remained unharmed and would be blessed that she would become pregnant (Bamidbar 5:11-31). In times when there is no Mei Sotah such as in the present day, she must be divorced and does not receive her Kesuvah.
(d) A Sotah Vadai is an ordinary married woman (that is, not a Na'arah ha'Me'urasah - see ) who committed adultery. She is prohibited to her husband and the adulterer and she may not eat Terumah. If she committed the act after not heeding the warning of two witnesses, is put to death by Chenek (choking), as it states in the Torah (Devarim 22:22).