ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) The Mishnah discusses a Mavoy - (an alleyway that opens into a R'shus ha'Rabim) that is higher than twenty Amos.
(b) A Mavoy that is sixteen Amos wide - must be blocked at one end, whereas one that is less can be open at both ends.
(c) The Rabbanan instituted the prohibition of carrying in a Mavoy without a Lechi or Korah - in case one carries from it into the R'shus ha'Rabim.
(d) A Lechi is - an upright post, whereas a Korah is a crossbar
(a) When the Tana Kama states that one must reduce a Mavoy that is higher than twenty Amos, he is referring to - the Korah, which needs to be lowered ...
(b) ... because the eye does not focus on something that is higher than twenty Amos.
(a) Rebbi Yehudah says - that it is not necessary to lower it ...
(b) ... since he holds that the basis of the Tikun is in the form of a Mechitzah, whereas the Chachamim consider it a Heker (a reminder [not to carry]).
(c) The principle that governs Rebbi Yehudah's reasoning is - 'Pi Tikrah Yores ve'Sosem' (the ninety-degree edge of the beam descends and fills in the space).
(d) The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.
(a) The Mishnah requires the entrance of a Mavoy that is wider than ten Amos to be reduced - because a gap that is wider than ten Amos is no longer considered an opening (which is what a Mavoy requires) but a breach.
(b) It is not necessary to reduce it, however - if it is made in the form of a Tzuras ha'Pesach ...
(c) ... two uprights and a crossbar (which have no Shi'ur).
(d) If the cross-bar ...
1. ... does not touch the two vertical posts, or even if it ...
2. ... is higher than three Tefachim than them - it is Kasher ...
(e) ... provided it is placed exactly above them.
(a) Throughout Maseches Eruvin - six Tefachim constitute an Amah ...
(b) ... and four Etzba'os (i.e. thumb-breadths) constitute one Amah.
(c) The two ways of measuring the latter (depending on the issue at stake) are - either with the thumbs close together (Tefach Atzeiv) or with a slight gap in between them (Tefach Shochek).
(d) The criterion is - that each case is judged Lechumra.
(a) For example, when measuring the height of a Mavoy or a Succah ...
1. ... to determine whether the former needs to be reduced or whether the latter is Kasher, one uses - Tefach Atzeiv; whereas ...
2. ... to determine whether they are less than ten Tefachim and are therefore Pasul - one uses a Tefach Shocheik,
(b) The two other Masechtos follow the same rules are - Masechta Succah and Masechta Kil'ayim.
(a) According to Beis Shamai, the Hechsher of a Mavoy via Shitufei Mavo'os - (when the residents of the various Chatzeros (courtyards) that line a Mavoy combine to be Machshir it for carrying on Shabbos) requires both a Lechi and a Korah.
(b) Beis Hillel hold - that either will sufice.
(c) According to ...
1. ... Beis Shamai, the Torah requires a Mavoy to have four complete walls in order to carry in it, whereas ...
2. ... Beis Hillel maintain - that it only requires three.
(d) Either way, the source for a Lechi and a Korah to rectify the missing fourth wall at the entrance is - Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(e) We are currently discussing - one that is enclosed on three sides (a blind alley [See Meleches Shlomoh]).
(a) The Mavoy must be - longer than it is wide.
(b) A Chatzer of the same shape with a breach that leads into the R'shus ha'Rabim - is considered a Mavoy, and requires a Lechi or a Korah in order to carry in it.
(c) If the Mavoy is square - it has the Din of a Chatzer that is breached into the R'shus ha'Rabim, and requires either a plank that is a little more than four Tefachim wide or two posts of minimal width, one on either side of the breach).
(a) The basic difference between a Korah and a Lechi is - that whereas the former is horizontal, the latter is vertical.
(b) Whereas the Lechi serves as a Mechitzah, the Korah serves as a Heker (a reminder not to carry from the Mavoy into the street.
(c) Rebbi Eliezer maintains that a Mavoy requires two Lechayayim. He basically holds like - Beis Shamai.
(a) Rebbi Yishmael citing a Talmid - (Rebbi Meir) qualified the Machlokes between Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel in the presence of Rebbi Akiva.
(b) He qualifies it - by limiting it to a Mavoy whose exit to the R'shus ha'Rabim measures more than four Amos (and less than ten) ...
(c) ... but if it measures less than four Amos - even Beis Shamai will agree that it requires only either a Lechi or a Korah.
(d) Rebbi Akiva says - that they argue in both cases.
(e) Rebbi Akiva differs from the Tana Kama - as to whether a Mavoy whose entrance is less than four Tefachim requires any Hechsher at all ...
(f) ... though we don't know which Tana says what.
(a) The Mishnah requires the Korah to be wide enough to hold an Ari'ach - (half a brick that measures three Tefachim [i.e. one and a half Tefachim wide]) ...
(b) ... which is sufficiently strong to build a permanent wall on it.
(c) When the Tana subsequently says that one Tefach will suffice, he is simply allowing for one Etzba (finger-breadth [i.e. a quarter of a Tefach]) of cement on either side.
(a) According to the Tana Kama, besides being wide enough, a Korah must also be - strong enough, to hold an Ari'ach.
(b) Rebbi Yehudah maintains - that this is not necessary.
(c) The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.
(a) The author of the statement that even if the 'Korah' is made of straw or of canes, we consider it as if it was made of metal is - Rebbi Yehudah.
(b) The Mishnah say rules that if a Korah is ....
1. ... bent - we consider it as if it was straight.
2. ... round - we consider it as if it was square.
(c) The circumference of a round Korah be - three Tefachim in order to be acceptable.
(d) We learn this from the Yam shel Sh'lomoh (the large Mikvah that Sh'lomoh built in the Beis-ha'Mikdash), as it is described in Divrei ha'Yamim, which gives the Mikvah's ...
1. ... circumference as - thirty Amos.
2. ... diameter as - ten Amos.
(a) The minimum height of a Lechi required by the Mishnah is - ten Tefachim ...
(b) ... since that is the minimum height of the walls of a Mavoy ...
(c) ... though the Lechi need not exceed ten Tefachim, even if the walls do.
(a) The Tana Kama declares the Lechi Kasher - even it measures only a Kol Shehu.
(b) According to Rebbi Yossi, the minimum width is - three Tefachim ...
(c) ... since three Tefachim is a Shi'ur Chashuv regarding a Mechitzah.
(d) The Halachah is like - the Tana Kama.
(a) The Mishnah basically permits anything to be used as Lechayayin (See Tos. Yom-Yov). The Tana Kama permits even live animals. Rebbi Yossi forbids it - in case the animal dies, in which case it will sag to less than ten Tefachim, and they may forget to hoist it back.
(b) The Tana Kama also renders live animals Tamei (See Meleches Sh'lomoh) because of Goleil - (the cover of a grave).
(c) Rebbi Meir declares it Tahor - since he does not consider anything which stands by means of Ru'ach Chayim (and not naturally) a Mechitzah.
(a) And finally, the Tana Kama validates a Get that is written on live animals. Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili declares it invalid ...
(b) ...based on the Pasuk in Ki Seitzei "ve'Kasav lah Seifer", which he interprets to mean - that a Get may only be written on something that resembles a Seifer (which does not possess 'Ru'ach Chayim').
(c) The Tana Kama disagrees with him - because then the Torah ought o have written 've'Kasav lah ba'Seifer'.
(d) He therefore learns from "ve'Kasav lah Seifer" - that he writes the 'Sipur' (the details of the divorce) on a scroll.
(e) The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.
(a) If a man writes a Get on the horn of his cow and gives her ...
1. ... the cow together with the horn - the woman is divorced.
2. ... the horn but not the cow - she is not ...
(b) ... because before the divorce can take effect, she will have to cut off the horn, whereas it needs to take effect as soon as she receives it.
(a) The Mishnah rules that if a caravan of camels that spends Shabbos in a valley, and they surround the camp with the camels' accessories - one may carry there.
(b) In order to carry however, the make-shift Mechitzah must be - at least ten Tefachim high.
(c) The Tana also stipulates - that the breaches should not total more than the section that is intact.
(d) If they do, one may not even carry in those place places where the Mechitzah is intact (since it is not considered a Mechitzah).
(a) A breach that is not larger than the wall next to it permissible - because it is considered a Pesach (a doorway) ...
(b) ... and the same will apply if they are the same size ('Parutz ke'Omeid').
(c) The maximum size breach that the Mishnah permits is ten Amos.
(d) Even a breach of more than ten Amos permitted however - as longer as it is in the form of a Tzuras ha'Pesach ...
(e) ... where a cross-beam stretches from the top of one post to the next.
(a) The Mishnah presents a second alternative for forming a Mechitzah around the caravan ... by means of ropes that stretch from one post to another. The ...
1. ... minimum number of ropes that are required for this purpose is - three.
2. ... maximum distance that is permitted between one rope and the next is - a Mashehu (a fraction) less than three Tefachim.
(b) The combined thickness of the three ropes must therefore measure a Tefach - plus three Mashehuyin ...
(c) ... in order to make up the Tefachim (which is the minimum height of a Mechitzah).
(a) The third alternative presented by the Tana is that of vertical posts placed at a distance from one another - placed at a minimum of a Mashehu less than three Tefachim from one another?
(b) This called a 'Mechitzah shel Sh'si', whereas the Mechitzah of horizontal ropes called - a Mechitzah shel Areiv.
(c) Rebbi Yehudah confines these two Mechitzos to a 'Shayara' (a caravan) - constituting at least three people.
(d) If there are less - the Mechitzah must comprise both Sh'si and Areiv.
(a) Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah, who is even more stringent than his father - maintains that any Mechitzah that does not cmprise Sh'si and Areiv is not a Mechitzah.
(b) The Chachamim, on the other hand, say 'One of two things' by which they mean - that a Mechitzah made of either Sh'si or Areiv is sufficient under all circumstances ...
(c) ... even when one is not traveling, whereas the Tana Kama permits it only when traveling.
(d) The Halachah is - like the Chachamim.
(a) The Chachamim concede to Rebbi Yehudah that a Mechitzah must comprise both a Sh'si and an Areiv in the case of ...
1. ... one or two people - in a large open area (a Midbar) that measures more than a Beis Sasayim.
2. ... even three people - there where the large open space (which may otherwise comprise many Milin, and) which houses all their traveling accessories) contains an area of a Beis Sasayim which they are not using.
(b) A Beis Sasayim comprises - a hundred b y fifty Amos (like the area of the Chatzer of the Mishkan).
(a) The Mishnah lists four concessions regarding a - (battle) camp ...
(b) ... even if they are fighting - a Milchemes R'shus.
(c) Besides 'bringing wood from 'anywhere' and washing one's hands, the Tana incorporates - D'mai and Eiruv in his list.
(d) When he says ...
1. ... 'D'mai', he means - that the soldiers are Patur from separating Terumas Ma'aser from it.
2. ... 'Eiruv', he is referring to - Eiruv Chatzeiros (with regard to carrying from one tent to another).
(e) They are not however, exempt from making an Eiruv Techumin.
(a) The Tana permite the soldiers to bring wood from anywhere - even though it would normally fall under the category of Gezel.
(b) And he permits them even - to bring wood from a pile that the owner has cut and piled up for his own personal use.
(c) By 'Washing the hands' the Mishnah is referring to - washing their hands before eating.
(d) It does not extend to Mayim Acharonim (that one washes after eating) - which is based on the danger of placing one's hands in one's eyes after having touched 'Melach Sedomis', and which therefore follows the principle 'Chamira Sakanta me'Isura' (Sakanah is more stringent than Isur [even though it is not a matter of life-danger).