POINT BY POINT OUTLINE OF THE DAF
prepared by Rabbi Pesach Feldman of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
1) A WALL BETWEEN TWO CHATZEROS (cont.)
(a) Question (against R. Yochanan - Mishnah): People from either Chatzer may alight on the wall and eat.
(b) (Inference): They may go up and eat, but they may not take food up!
(c) Answer: No. If the wall is four by four, they may go up and eat, but they may not take food up. If it is less than four by four, they may even take food up;
1. This is like R. Yochanan taught elsewhere.
2. (Rav Dimi citing R. Yochanan): If a place [at least three Tefachim tall] is less than four by four [Tefachim], people of Reshus ha'Rabim or Reshus ha'Yachid may unload on it, as long as they do not use it to transfer [from one Reshus to the other].
(d) Question: Does Rav argue with Rav Dimi?! (A Mishnah (Shabbos 6a) supports Rav Dimi!)
(e) Answer: Rav agrees with him regarding Reshuyos mid'Oraisa (Reshus ha'Yachid or Reshus ha'Rabim);
1. He argues about Reshuyos mid'Rabanan. He holds that [there] Chachamim were more stringent about their decrees than about Torah laws.
(f) (Rav Nachman): If [there are two Chatzeros, the ground of one is higher that of the other, and] there is a wall between them that is 10 Tefachim above the lower Chatzer but even with the other (as long as it is not 10 Tefachim above it, it is called " even with it"), only the higher Chatzer may use the top of the wall [on Shabbos], for it is convenient for the higher Chatzer to use it, but it is inconvenient for the lower Chatzer.
(g) Whenever something is convenient for one party and inconvenient for another, only the former may use it.
(h) (Rav Nachman): If a ditch between two Chatzeros is 10 Tefachim deeper than one of them and it is even with (i.e. less than 10 deeper than) the other (the second Chatzer is lower), only the lower Chatzer may use it, because it is convenient for them, but it is inconvenient for the higher Chatzer.
(i) He needed to teach both of these;
1. Had he taught only about a wall, one might have thought that the higher Chatzer may use it because it is convenient for them, but a ditch is not convenient for either Chatzer, so both are forbidden;
2. Had he taught only about a ditch, one might have thought that the lower Chatzer may use it, for one is not afraid to put things there, but people are afraid to put things on a wall [lest they fall], so both Chatzeros are forbidden.
2) DIMINISHING A WALL
(a) If one wants to be Mema'et [build a platform in front of the wall to diminish] the height [to less than 10] --
1. If the Mi'ut is four [Tefachim wide], he may use the entire wall. If it is less than four, he may use only the place of the Mi'ut.
(b) Question: Either way you say, this is difficult!
1. If the Mi'ut helps, it should permit the entire wall. If it does not help, it should not permit anything!
(c) Answer (Ravina): We discuss diminishing the wall through removing bricks on top. (If it is four wide, it is convenient to alight there. It is like an opening to the entire wall. If it is less than four, there the wall is not a separate Reshus.)
(d) (Rav Yechi'el): If one turned over a basin and placed it next to the wall, it is Mema'et.
(e) Question: Something that may be moved on Shabbos is not Mema'et!
(f) Answer: The case is, he attached it to the ground [with dirt].
(g) Question: Still, it may be moved [even though Muktzeh dirt is moved with it]!
1. (Beraisa): If an unripe fig was wrapped in [Muktzeh] straw, or if a cake was wrapped in coals [that have extinguished]:
i. If it is partially exposed, one may move it. If not, one may not;
(h) Answer: The case is, the basin has a rim. (Moving the basin moves dirt on the rim. This is like digging.)
(i) Question: Even so, it may be moved!
1. (Mishnah): If one stores (Tosfos R. Peretz - a bunch of) turnips or radishes under a vine, leaving some of the leaves (Rav Hai Gaon - some of the vegetables) exposed, we are not concerned for Kil'ai ha'Kerem, Shemitah, or Ma'aser. One may remove it on Shabbos.
(j) Answer: It is attached so firmly that a hoe and axe are needed to remove it. (Therefore, one may not move it on Shabbos.)
3) IS A LADDER MEMA'ET?
(a) A Mitzri ladder is not Mema'et. (It is small.) A Tzuri ladder is Mema'et. (It is big. This is either a Beraisa, or a continuation of Rav Yechi'el's words.)
(b) Question: What is a Mitzri ladder?
(c) Answer (d'Vei R. Yanai): It is a ladder with less than four rungs.
(d) Question (Rav Acha brei d'Rava): Why isn't a Mitzri ladder Mema'et?
(e) Answer (Rav Ashi): Rav Acha bar Ada taught that it is not Mema'et because it may be moved, and anything that may be moved on Shabbos is not Mema'et!
(f) Question: If so, also a Tzuri ladder should not be Mema'et!
(g) Answer: Because it is heavy, people do not move it [on Shabbos].
(h) (Abaye): If the wall between two Chatzeros is 10 Tefachim tall, and there is a ladder four Tefachim wide on each side:
1. If the distance between the ladders is less than three Tefachim, they are Mema'et. (They may be Me'arev together.) If not, they are not.
2. This is if the wall is less than four Tefachim wide. If it is four wide, in any case they are Mema'et. (It is easy to walk on top of the wall. The ladders enable one to go from one Chatzer to the other.)
(i) (Rav Bivi bar Abaye): If one built a platform next to the wall, and another platform on top of it [on stilts]:
1. If the lower one is four [(Tosfos - by four) Tefachim] wide, it is Mema'et. (We ignore the top platform. If only one Chatzer has a platform, the Mi'ut permits it to transfer to the top of the wall. If there are platforms on both sides of the wall, they permit to be Me'arev together);
2. Even if the lower one is not four, but the upper one is four and there are less than three Tefachim between them, it is Mema'et. (Rashi - they are like one platform. We do not consider it to be 'a Mi'ut in the air', which is not a Mi'ut. Rashba - if they are within three they are Lavud, so it suffices for their combined area to be four by four. If the top one is four by four by itself, even if it is more than three away, it is Mema'et, even though it is 'in the air.' The same applies to the next teaching about a ladder. The steps are like platforms.)
(j) (Rav Nachman): If the rungs of a ladder are disconnected (Rashi; Ri - if a staircase is next to the wall, and all the steps are connected in back):
1. If the lower step is four (Tosfos - by four) [Tefachim] wide, it is Mema'et;
2. Even if the lower one is not four, but the upper one is four and there are less than three Tefachim between them, it is Mema'et.