(a) GEMARA - Maseches Eruvin logically follows Maseches Shabbos. A large portion of Shabbos deals with the Melachah of Hotza'ah, carrying from one domain to another. The first two chapters of Eruvin discuss when and how it is permitted to carry between private domains that are owned by different individuals. The third, fourth, and fifth chapters discuss the laws of Eruvei Techumin, or extending one's Shabbos "Techum." The rest of the Maseches returns to the topic of carrying in different domains and discusses in detail the laws of Eruvei Chatzeros. (See Background to the Daf: Introduction to Eruvin.)
(b) The commentaries of RASHI and TOSFOS on Eruvin are typical of their commentaries on the rest of Shas. However, in a number of places in Eruvin, Rashi offers two different explanations without separating the two with a dividing statement such as "Lishna Achrina" (see, for example, 43a, DH Halachah; 45b, DH u'Vilvad; 51b, DH Ihu Keivan; 65b, DH d'Asa Nachri b'Shabbos; 101b, DH l'Machar Pose'ach, DH Hadar Bei). These are usually noted by the Bach or Maharsha. The two explanations apparently come from an earlier and a later commentary that Rashi wrote on Eruvin, which were combined in our edition.
In some places in the Maseches, the commentary of TOSFOS YESHANIM has been added in a small typeface, or in the margin, based on citations in the Maharshal from the TOSFOS SHANZ (see, for example, 40b, 41a, 41b, 42b).
(1) EARLY COMMENTARIES(a) RABEINU NISIM GA'ON - Rabeinu Nisim Ga'on lived in the eleventh century in Kirouan, North Africa. He died in 1050/4810. (Although he is referred to as "Ga'on," he lived after the period of the Ga'onim.) His commentary is printed in the margins of the Vilna Shas and provides background information when the Gemara refers to a concept discussed elsewhere in Shas. He authored the Sefer ha'Mafte'ach (Megilas Setarim) which was recently reprinted with footnotes by Rav David Metzger (1990, Jerusalem; Wagschal).
(b) RABEINU CHANANEL - Rabeinu Chananel ben Chushiel lived in the eleventh century. His father, Rabeinu Chushiel, was one of the famous "four captives" (a group of Roshei Yeshiva who were captured by pirates and redeemed by different communities along the Mediterranean coast). After he was redeemed from bondage, he lived in Kirouan, North Africa, where his son Rabeinu Chananel was born. The commentary of Rabeinu Chananel on Eruvin is printed in the margin of the Vilna Shas, and was recently reprinted from manuscript and annotated by Rav David Metzger (1990, Jerusalem; Wagschal).
(2) RISHONIM OF SPAIN (ARAGON)(a) RAMBAN - Rabeinu Moshe ben Nachman lived in the thirteenth century. He died in 1270/5030. He was a student of the RAMAH (Rabeinu Meir ha'Levi Abulefia). Although he authored abundant Chidushim on other Masechtos, he has very few Chidushim on Maseches Eruvin. The Ramban's commentary on Eruvin was published with corrections and short annotations by Rav Aharon Yaffen, in the Chidushei ha'Ramban ha'Shalem of Rav Moshe Herschler. In addition to a limited number of Chidushim on Eruvin, we also have the Ramban's Milchamos Hashem on the Rif in Maseches Eruvin.
(b) RASHBA - Rabeinu Shlomo (ben Avraham) ben Aderes died in 1310/5070. The Rashba's primary mentor was Rabeinu Yonah, but he also learned under the Ramban. The Rashba's commentary on Eruvin was recently reprinted with corrections and clarifications by Mosad ha'Rav Kook (1986, Jerusalem) and by Oraysah Press (1993). The Oraysah edition includes a collection of Teshuvos of the Rashba pertinent to the Maseches, as well as the Rashba's Avodas ha'Kodesh (see below, Halachah section).
(c) RITVA - Rabeinu Yom Tov ben Avraham Al'ashvili lived in the 1300's and was a close disciple of the Re'ah and, later, the Rashba. The Chidushei ha'Ritva to Eruvin was recently reprinted along with annotations by Rav Moshe Goldstein in the Mosad ha'Rav Kook edition (1990, Jerusalem).
(d) RAN - Rabeinu Nisim ben Rav Reuven Girondi lived in the 1300's (died circa 1380). His Chidushim often follow the style of the Rashba, whose points he develops further. The Ran's Chidushim on Eruvin do not appear in the older, single volume set of the Chidushei ha'Ran on Shas. His commentary on Eruvin was printed recently from manuscript by Machon Yerushalayim (1983), with notes and annotations by Rav Eliyahu Dov Pines.
(e) TALMID HA'RASHBA - This commentary, originally printed as "Talmid ha'Rashba v'Ritva" and then reprinted as "Talmid ha'Rashba," was written anonymously on Maseches Eruvin and Maseches Beitzah by a Rishon who refers to the Rashba as "my teacher." He quotes extensively from the Chidushei ha'Rashba, although he never quotes the Rashba's Avodas ha'Kodesh (see below, Halachah section). The commentary generally follows that of the Rashba. He quotes the Ritva once (at the end of the third chapter).
(3) RISHONIM OF PROVENCE AND NARVONA(a) RABEINU YEHONASAN M'LUNIL - Rabeinu Yehonasan of Lunil lived in the early 1200's and learned under the Ra'avad. He wrote a commentary on the Rif for most of Shas, including Eruvin. His commentary on Maseches Eruvin is the only one which is printed in the Vilna Shas (alongside the Rif, instead of the Ran). It also appears in a separate volume with the rest of his Chidushim on Shas (Perushei Rabeinu Yehonasan mi'Lunil, 1985, Jerusalem), which includes annotations on the commentary of Rabeinu Yehonasan entitled "Chitzei Yehonasan" by Rav Yakov Meir Padua (original printed in 1840 in Koenigsberg, and included in Asifas Zekenim, volume 2).
(b) SEFER HA'HASHLAMAH - Rabeinu Meshulam ben Moshe wrote Sefer ha'Hashlamah on the Rif in order to complement the Rif by adding to it the Halachos that were not discussed in his commentary. He died in 1238/4998. This work is included in Rav Moshe Herschler's Ginzei Rishonim (Mechon ha'Talmud ha'Yisraeli, 1967).
(c) SEFER HA'ME'OROS - Rabeinu Meir ben Shimon wrote "Sefer ha'Me'oros" on the Rif. He died in 1264/5024. (d) ME'IRI - Rabeinu Menachem ben Shlomo (d. 1315/5075) wrote his comprehensive Halachic work, "Beis ha'Bechirah," on 37 Masechtos of Shas. For some Masechtos, including Eruvin, he composed a running commentary on the words of the Gemara (Chidushei ha'Me'iri) in addition to "Beis ha'Bechirah." The Chidushei ha'Me'iri to Eruvin was printed by Mosad ha'Rav Kook (1990, Jerusalem, 3 volumes) and comprehensively annotated by ha'Gaon Rav Simchah Zisel Broide (Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshivas Chevron in Giv'at Mordechai, Jerusalem). The Me'iri's running commentary on the Maseches is an invaluable tool for clarifying the points of difficult Sugyos. The Me'iri was a student of the Rashba, and he occasionally even cites from commentaries as late as those of the Ritva. The Me'iri rarely mentions another Rishon by name. Instead, he created "nicknames" for the commentators from whom he often cites, such as "Gedolei ha'Rabanim" for Rashi, and "Gedolei ha'Mechabrim" for the Rambam. A convenient list of these, along with their true identities, can be found at the beginning of the Beis ha'Bechirah on Beitzah.
(4) RISHONIM OF GERMANY(a) OR ZARU'A - Rabeinu Yitzchak ben Moshe (d. 1260/5020) authored the Or Zaru'a. He studied under many of the great sages of his time, including Rabeinu Yehudah he'Chasid, the Ra'avyah, the Sar mi'Kutzi, and the Ba'al ha'Roke'ach. His son, Rav Chaim Or Zaru'a, wrote a collection of Teshuvos. Rabeinu Yitzchak named his work "Or Zaru'a" out of excitement when he noted that the final letters of the words in the verse "Or Zaru'a la'Tzadik..." spell "R' Akivah." The Or Zaru'a usually prefaces each Halachah with a citation of the pertinent Gemara and Rashi, making his Sefer an excellent source for verifying variant Girsa'os in Rashi.
(b) TOSFOS RID and PISKEI RID - Rabeinu Yeshayah (ben Mali, or ha'Rishon) d'Trani was one of the leading sages of Italy/Germany during the early 1200's. His commentary on most of the Masechtos of Shas is known as "Tosfos Rid" (not to be confused with his grandson, Rabeinu Yeshayah Acharon, or Ri'az, author of the Piskei Ri'az). He compiled a commentary on most of the Masechtos of Shas known as "Tosfos Rid," which was written in several Mahaduros, or drafts. We have the first and the third drafts of his commentary on Eruvin. He also compiled a Halachic summary of the Maseches called Piskei Rid, printed in 1992 by Mechon ha'Talmud ha'Yisraeli.
(c) PISKEI RI'AZ - Rabeinu Yeshayah Acharon zt'l authored the Piskei Ri'az, which is printed together with the Piskei Rid, as described above. His words are often cited by the Shiltei Giborim on the Rif.
(5) RISHONIM IN THE STYLE OF TOSFOS(a) SEFER HA'YASHAR - Rabeinu Yakov ben Meir, known as Rabeinu Tam (from the verse "v'Yakov Ish Tam"), wrote Chidushim which appear in the Chidushim section of his Sefer ha'Yashar. Rabeinu Tam was the son of Rashi's daughter. He and his two brothers, Rashbam (Rabeinu Shmuel ben Meir, the oldest of the three) and Rivam (Rabeinu Yitzchak ben Meir) were the first generation of Ba'alei ha'Tosfos. He died in 1171/4931. Sefer ha'Yashar was reprinted based on two original manuscripts, with footnotes, by Rav Shimon Schlesinger (second edition, 1980, Jerusalem).
(b) TOSFOS RABEINU PERETZ - One of the Ba'alei ha'Tosfos, his commentary was compiled and published by his students. Among his students was the Mordechai. Rabeinu Peretz was a student of Rav Yechiel of Paris and Rav Meir of Rotenberg. In many Masechtos, the commentary abounds with diametrical errors in syntax (e.g. "Mutar" instead of "Asur"; "Shabbos" instead of "Yom Tov"), as Rav Moshe Herschler points out in his informative introduction to Tosfos Rabeinu Peretz on Bava Metzia. Most of these errors are corrected in the recent editions of his commentary. The commentary on Eruvin was printed originally by Lev Same'ach Institute (1990, Jerusalem) and again as part of a complete set of Tosfos Rabeinu Peretz on Shas, by MTM Publishers (1996, Jerusalem), with annotations by Rav Chaim Dikman. When the Ritva cites "Tosfos," he is usually citing the words of Tosfos Rabeinu Peretz.
(c) TOSFOS HA'ROSH - Rabeinu Asher ben Yechiel (d. 1328/5088), originally from Germany, fled to Spain after his mentor, Rav Meir of Rotenberg, was taken captive by the authorities and passed away in jail. One of the great sages of Germany, he wrote commentaries and rulings on most of Shas which had a profound influence on the redactors of Halachah.
(6) HALACHAH(a) AVODAS HA'KODESH - The Rashba wrote Avodas ha'Kodesh, which he divided into two "Batim." The first "Bayis" deals with the laws of Eruvin, and the second deals with the laws of Yom Tov and Muktzah. Throughout the years this work was printed many times with many different commentaries, such as Mahaduras Kesav Yad (1984, Jerusalem, with excellent indexes). Rav Chaim Tzimbelist printed Avodas ha'Kodesh with an excellent Halachic anthology called "Avodas Avodah" (1973-90, Tel Aviv, four volumes).
(1) COMMENTARIES AND CHIDUSHIM1) TORAS CHAIM - Rav Avraham Shor, an early Acharon, wrote a limited number of Chidushim on Shas, including some on Eruvin, which are often cited and referred to by the later Acharonim.
2) KEREN ORAH - Rav Yitzchak of Karlin (brother of the Mishkenos Yakov) wrote deep and penetrating Chidushim.
3) GA'ON YAKOV - Rav Yakov Kahane, a Talmid of the Vilna Ga'on, wrote deep Chidushim on all of Eruvin. His style and unusual depth make his work very difficult to learn, although the new annotated edition (Mechon Tosfos Yomtov, 1997, Jerusalem) makes it more approachable.
4) SEFAS EMES - short and penetrating insights by Rav Yehudah Aryeh Leib of Gur, the second Gerer Rebbe, grandson of the Chidushei ha'Rim (the first Gerer Rebbe).
5) GUR ARYEH - by the Maharal of Prague. The Gur Aryeh is similar to his other works in style, as it includes deep analytical explanations of the Gemara as well as some comments on Agadah. This work is printed at the end of the Me'oros Shas and in the Asifas Zekenim, volume 1.
6) MENACHEM MESHIV - by Rav Menachem Meinish Heilprin. These short, helpful comments pertain to the literal meaning of the Gemara and Rashi, and are intended for those learning the Maseches quickly, on all of Seder Mo'ed. Includes many Girsa corrections as well.
7) PIRYO B'ITO - by Rav Yisrael Yakov ha'Levi Kelner-Keller. A line-by-line explanation and commentary on the words of Rashi in Maseches Eruvin. Included are handy charts and sketches. (At the end of the Sefer is a collection of the author's Derashos and Chidushim, called "Ohala d'Marganisa," dedicated in memory of his wife and six children who were murdered by the Germans, Yemach Shemam v'Zichram, in Auschwitz.)
(2) ANTHOLOGIES1) GILYONEI HA'SHAS - by Rav Yosef Engel, author of "Asvan d'Oraisa," this Sefer is mainly references to, and quotes from, the writings of the Rishonim in their responsa and other early works, with additional insights by the author.
2) MESILAS HA'BARZEL - by Rav Nisan Shabsai Hailper, this work lists sources in the Rishonim and Acharonim that deal with the various Sugyos in the Gemara.
3) OR HA'YASHAR - by Rav Shmuel Hilman, an excellent anthology on all of Torah, Navi, Mishnah and every Daf of Gemara.
4) ASIFAS ZEKENIM - a collection of rare works on the Maseches, including the Maharal's Gur Aryeh and many others (two volumes).
5) YAD BINYAMIN - by Rav Binyamin Elyashiv, son of Hagaon Rav Yosef Shalom Elyashiv, shlit'a. This is an invaluable work on the Maseches which fills an important role, anthologizing important comments of the Rishonim and Acharonim in each Sugya. It includes helpful explanatory notes on Gemara, Rashi, and Tosfos when their words are difficult to understand, as well as helpful sketches.
(3) HALACHAH1) BI'UR HALACHAH and MISHNAH BERURAH - these classic works by the Chafetz Chayim are essential when learning Eruvin, particularly volume 4. The Chafetz Chayim provides penetrating insights into the difficult Sugyos of the Maseches, as well as a compendium of the rulings of the Rishonim and the Acharonim on the Maseches.
2) CHAZON ISH - the deep insights of ha'Gaon Rav Avraham Yeshayahu Karelitz zt'l on Eruvin has had an important impact on the present day Halachic practice.
3) NESIVOS SHABBOS - an excellent, comprehensive and well-indexed work on the laws of Hotza'ah and Eruvin, by Rav Yakov Yeshayah Blau shlit'a of Jerusalem (known for his popular works on Choshen Mishpat), printed by Mechon l'Hora'ah of Monsey, 5749.
4) KOL BO AL HILCHOS RESHUYOS V'ERUVIN - by the prolific author, Rav Yekusiel Zev Gross shlit'a), of Brooklyn, New York.
5) DINEI ERUVIN - a contemporary work on the laws of Eruvin by Rav Elimelech Lange.
6) THE CONTEMPORARY ERUV - by Rav Yosef Gavriel Bechhofer (Feldheim Publishers, 1998). An excellent treatise in English addressing the applications of the laws of Eruvin to modern metropolitan areas and the issues involved with modern Eruvin.
(4) STUDY AIDS TO ERUVIN1) PERUSH CHAI - this classic work on Eruvin by Rav Chaim Porush combines artistic talent with mastery of the text and its commentaries. Sketches and pictures pertinent to the Maseches have also been printed in other works, including the end of the new Mechon ha'Tur ha'Shalem edition of the Tur, the new Mishnah Berurah, the new Artscroll Shas, Shi'urei ha'Yom, Chavrusa, Yad Binyamin, and Piryo b'Ito.
2) KOLLEL IYUN HADAF - Kollel Iyun Hadaf's invaluable "Insights to the Daf" touch on many of the questions that one is likely to ask on the Gemara and Rashi, as well as clarifications and in-depth discussions on Halachic issues and Agados of the Masechta. Kollel Iyun Hadaf's Charts, Graphics, and "Background to the Daf," with translations, Girsa notes, and introductions to concepts discussed on the Daf, are invaluable study aids. "Review Questions and Answers" facilitate reviewing the Masechta, while "Outlines of the Daf" enhance one's learning. In Hebrew, one can review with "Galei Masechta," a concise Hebrew review of the Gemara, Rashi, and Tosfos. The Kollel also addresses questions on the Daf in an interactive discussion forum (at DAF@DAFYOMI.CO.IL).
3) YOSEF DA'AS - published by Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Rav Yosef Ben Arza's renowned Hebrew compendium on the Masechta is now printed in hard cover (with a copy of the Wagschal printing of the Gemara). This outstanding publication provides clear summaries of the distinct approaches of the Rishonim to the Sugya, analyses of the Acharonim, inspiring insights of the masters of Musar and Machshavah, and summaries of the Halachic conclusions of the Poskim. A comprehensive review section is also included.